2011年11月7日 星期一

More, Thomas

翻譯練習 今天張華先生說要讀些如余秋雨等散文 我說昨天讀OUP 的聖人辭典
The Oxford Dictionary of Saints
by David Hugh Farmer is a concise reference compilation of information on more than 1300 saints. Published January 8, 1998 by Oxford University Press.

中的More 發現這些單字要查天主教小辭典http://www.peterpoon.idv.hk/Resource/Dictionary/A.htm 等

More, Thomas (1478–1535), martyr. Born in London, the son of Sir John More, barrister and judge, Thomas More at the age of thirteen joined the household of John Morton, archbishop of Canterbury (1486–1500), who sent him to Canterbury College, Oxford, where he stayed for only two years on a very restricted allowance from his father, who called him home. In 1496 he entered Lincoln's Inn and was called to the Bar in 1501. In 1504 he entered Parliament (his constituency is unknown). For four years he had lived at the London Charterhouse, uncertain in his own mind whether to join it or the Friars Minor or to become a diocesan priest. In the event he did none of these things but decided to pursue his legal career and get married. But from these years date his lifelong habit of wearing a hairshirt, the daily recitation of the Little Office, and the use of the discipline. If some reaction against clerics and clerical life is seen in this decision, it would be quite untrue to assume on Thomas's part any rejection of asceticism. Always a Londoner and a lawyer, he delighted both in the capital's way of life and in the cut and thrust of legal argument.
cleric :聖職人員;神職人員。詳見 clergy asceticism :宗教的修行;神修;苦修生活;克修:指倫理、身心方面的修煉之道。亦即信徒經由收斂內心和克制肉體(妄動),修煉與天主密切結合之道。Carthusians :嘉都西會: 1084 年聖布魯諾( St. Bruno )創立於法國。規律嚴格,訓練會士克己苦身,獨居斗室,專心祈禱和工作。該會全名為 Order of Carthusians ,縮寫為 O. Cart. Little Office of Our Lady :聖母小日課:按日課形式,用以敬禮聖母之一種較簡短的日課。同 Office of Blessed Virgin Mary, Little friar :會士;修士:托缽的會士,多指方濟、道明、加爾默羅等會會士。hair-shirt :苦衣:苦行(修)時所穿的粗糙衣服。discipline (1) 訓誡;紀律;修練。拉丁文稱作 disciplina (2) 苦鞭:教會用於;中古世紀之修士、修女多用之。使用時應有神師指導,並不得殘害身體。參閱 flagellation cut and thrust格闘, 白兵戦;白熱の議論, 活発なやりとり.

In 1505 he married Jane Colt of Netherhall (Essex), the eldest daughter of John Colt. Although More had originally found her younger sister more attractive, the marriage was a happy one; three daughters and a son were born, but Jane More died in 1511. Already More had made friends with and been deeply influenced by some of the leading men of the New Learning, especially Erasmus, but also Linacre, Grocyn, and Colet. More's many‐sided personality, made up of intellectual sophistication and simple moral honesty, brilliance and receptivity, loyalty to his king and affection to his wife, friends, and children, was becoming known. Henry VIII, who became king in 1509, early recognized his worth and integrity; he promoted him to a whole series of public offices: Under‐Sheriff of London (1510), envoy to Flanders (1516), Privy Councillor and Master of Requests (1518), Speaker of the House of Commons (1523), High Steward of Oxford University (1524), High Steward of Cambridge University, and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1525). Meanwhile his reputation as a man of letters and a wit was helped by his publications, the most notable of which was Utopia, written in Latin in 1516, but soon translated into the principal European languages. This is an ironical political essay describing a society in which there is no private property but where there is universal religious toleration and free education for both men and women. Other writings include his Life of John Picus (1510), History of Richard III (printed 1543, a pro‐Lancastrian tract later used by Shakespeare) and controversial works against Tyndale such as the Dialogue (1528), the Confutacyon of Tyndale's Answere (1528–32), and his own Apologye (1533). The language of the controversial works is often unpleasing to modern readers but was common currency in his time. So too is his pursuit of heretics whom he regarded as dangerous enemies of both Church and State.
在1505年,他娶了John Colt的長女 Jane Colt Netherhall(埃塞克斯)。雖然摩爾原本覺得妻的妹妹更有吸引力,而此一婚姻相當幸福;他們育有三女一男,可是夫人卻在1511年過逝了。摩爾已與當時歐洲新學問(New Learning)的碩學Erasmus (伊拉斯謨)Thomas Linacre (1460-1524) Grocyn 和Colet.等人交往並深受其影響。摩爾人格的多面,如知識上深入以及道德上單純而誠實、聰明而善與人交往、忠君愛家人朋友等,都漸為人所樂道、聞名。亨利八世(在1509即位) 早認出他的德行和操守兼備;就提拔他從事系列的公共事務:倫敦副市長(1510),法蘭德斯特使(1516),樞密院士兼請願長(1518),下議院議長(1523),牛津大學大法官代表(1524),劍橋大學大法官代表,蘭開斯特皇產主管兼內閣不管部部長(1525)。同時他做為有學問和智慧的文人的聲譽,也隨著他的出書而日隆,其中最引人注目的是寫於 1516年的拉丁文著作《烏托邦》(Utopia),很快地各歐洲的主要語言都有譯本。該書是篇具有諷刺意味的的政治論述,描述這樣一個社會,其中沒有私產,而有普遍的宗教寬容,男女都受免費教育。 John Picus 傳》(Life of Picus 1510),《理查德三世》(History of Richard III 1543印,一篇親蘭開斯特的論述,後來為莎士比亞戲劇所使用),以及有爭議的攻擊Tyndale(丁道爾)的作品,如《對話》( Dialogue 1528),《駁斥Tyndale的回答》(Confutacyon of Tyndale's Answere 1528 --32),和他自己的《自辯》(Apologye 1533)。這些有爭議性著作所使用的語言對現代讀者而言是不堪的,然而在他的時代卻是很平常的。同樣的,他對那些他認為對其教會和國家都很危險的異端之迫害,也是如此。

A few weeks after the death of his first wife More married again. His second wife was a widow, Alice Middleton; she was an experienced housewife, full of common sense, and a good stepmother for his children. In 1523 he had undertaken a defence, written against Luther, of Henry VIII 's book on the Seven Sacraments, which had earned Henry the title of Defender of the Faith from the papacy. More wrote under the name Gulielmus Rosseus. In 1524 he moved to Chelsea, where his famous household was painted by Hans Holbein (c.1526). His cultured and delightful family life, which included the education of his daughters (especially Margaret Roper) to a level far surpassing that currently available to most women, was often commented on by contemporaries. Devotional elements included the reading of passages from Scripture at table and family prayers every night, but the general culture, fed in part by his early study of the classics and by a scientific curiosity which led him to keep unusual pets such as a monkey, was of a particularly high level and seasoned by More's wit. His realism about clerical scandals or superstition in some cults of saints was matched by his assessment of the king's favour for him: ‘If my head would win him a castle in France, it should not fail to go.’
摩爾在第一任妻子去世幾個星期後就再婚。對象愛麗絲‧米德爾頓是個寡婦;她對家務有經驗,常識豐富,又是個孩子們的好繼母。在1523年,他為亨利八世的書《七個聖禮》──該書讓亨利從教皇贏得信仰的捍衛者的稱號──向路德做書面辯護。他更常用Gulielmus Rosseus的筆名寫作。 1524年,他遷居到切爾西,他著名的全家福是由漢斯‧荷爾拜因所的畫(約1526)。他的家庭生活很有教養又和樂,包括他對女兒們的教育(尤其是瑪格麗特‧羅珀)都遠遠超過當時大多數婦女的水平,經常為同時代的人所津津樂道。他家很虔誠,包括每天在餐桌上查經文以及晚上全家祈禱,但其一般文化水準相當高,而他又富機智,這些教養有的來自他早期研究過的經典,部分出自他對科學的好奇心──不尋常的寵物,如猴子等。舉凡辦公上的貪瀆醜聞或對宗教聖人的崇拜等,他都採取務實主義,所以他評估國王對他的寵愛有加時說:「如果用我的頭可贏得法國的某城堡,它就會落地。」

In the late 1520s Henry (who used to visit More's house informally, arriving by barge) consulted him about the supposed invalidity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. More first excused himself for lack of expert knowledge, but when pressed again made it clear that he did not share the king's opinion. This, however, did not prevent the king choosing him as Lord Chancellor in succession to Cardinal Wolsey in 1529. As judge he was famous for fairness, promptitude, and incorruptibility, which could not be said of many contemporaries in similar offices. But his tenure of office was too short to be profoundly influential on English history. He initiated, speaking for the king, the programme of the reform of the clergy, which had results even he would not have foreseen. But the cloud of doubt about Henry's marital plans hung over the friendship between More and the king, as did another caused by the king's plans to take to himself the powers over the Church of England held by the pope, according to traditional Christian belief the successor of St. Peter, prince of the Apostles. Only little by little did the king's intentions become clear. His imposition on the clergy of the acknowledgement of himself as ‘Protector and Supreme Head of the Church of England’ was accepted by Fisher and others only ‘so far as the law of Christ allows’. More at first wished to resign his office at this point, but was persuaded to accept the oath with JohnFisher's proviso. Further measures inhibiting the liberty of the clergy and refusing ‘firstfruits’ of bishoprics to the Holy See were opposed by More, but in vain. As the king's intentions became increasingly clear, More found his situation impossible and resigned the chancellorship.
1520年代後期亨利(他經常乘駁船去More的家作非正式拜訪)徵詢他與阿拉貢的凱瑟琳的婚姻是否應該是無效的。他首先以自己的專業知識不足來迴避,但經國王一再施壓,只好明確表示自己不同意國王的意見。然而,國王在1529年還是選他作為繼任紅衣主教沃爾西的大法官遺缺。作為大法官,他以的公平,果斷,和廉潔著名,這些品質同時代類似職務者所缺的。但他的任期太短,無法深刻地影響英國歷史。他為國王發起的神職人員改革方案,結果都遠遠超過他所能預見的。但是,國王的有疑議婚姻計劃越來越成為他兩之間的友誼之陰影,而國王計劃將傳統上屬羅馬人聖彼得大教堂(教宗)的英格蘭教會管轄權全收為己有,更是雪上加霜。國王的意圖只逐一地變得清晰。國王自稱為“英國教會的保護者兼最高負責人”的宣稱和施壓,只為神職人員JohnFisher主教等,以不違背基督的法律的前提下所接受。摩爾起初想辭公職,但被說服來宣誓 (有Fisher的但書)。對於國王採取進一步抑制神職人員自由和英國主教拒給教廷教區頭一年的稅收等的措施,摩爾也都反對,然而都沒用。國王的意圖越來越明顯之後,他發現情況與不可為,就辭去了大法官職。

The final crisis came over the Act of Succession with its inescapable implications. While the supposed nullity of Henry's marriage with Catherine of Aragon was still being decided at Rome, Henry married Anne Boleyn, who was then crowned Queen. More refused to attend her coronation. In 1534 the Act of Succession required the king's subjects to recognize the offspring of the marriage of Henry and Anne as successors to the throne; also that the union with Catherine of Aragon was no true marriage, but that the union with Anne was a true marriage and that the authority of any foreign prince or potentate should be repudiated. To the first part of the oath More was ready to agree, but he could not accept the other propositions, especially as only a little while before Clement VII had at last pronounced the marriage of Henry and Catherine to have been valid. Opposing the Act had been declared high treason, so after a second refusal More and John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, were committed to the Tower. This was on 13 April 1534. More was imprisoned for the remaining fifteen months of his life. Many efforts were made to induce him to conform but in vain; he forfeited all his lands and his family shared his poverty. In 1535 the Act of Supremacy which gave to the king the title ‘only supreme head of the Church in England’ came into force. John Houghton and the other London Carthusian monks were executed for ‘treason’ on 4 May and were watched by More on the way to their death. On 22 June, Fisher, More's friend and adviser, was beheaded on Tower Hill; on 1 July More, weak from illness and imprisonment, was tried in Westminster Hall. His defence was that his indictment was based directly on an Act of Parliament repugnant to the laws of God and the Church; that no temporal prince can presume by any law to take upon himself a spiritual pre‐minence given by Christ to St. Peter and his successors in the See of Rome; that a particular country could no more make laws against the general law of the Church than the City of London could make a law against Parliament to bind the whole country; that the new title was contrary to the king's coronation oath. Further, although bishops and universities had agreed to this Act, More had not found in seven years' special study of the subject a single ancient writer or doctor that advocated the spiritual supremacy of any secular and temporal prince. In Christendom itself learned bishops and virtuous men still alive, not to mention the saints who were dead, agreed with More; therefore he was not obliged to prefer the council of one realm against the General Council of Christendom or one Parliament (‘God knows what manner of one’) to all the Councils made these thousand years. Nevertheless, he was condemned to death. Characteristically he then expressed the hope that he and his judges may ‘hereafter in heaven all meet merrily together, to our everlasting salvation’. A last affectionate meeting with his daughter Margaret followed on his way back to the Tower; she and other members of his family had taken the oath which he refused. He was executed on Tower Hill on 6 July, his last words being that he died for the faith of the Holy Catholic Church and was ‘the king's good servant, but God's first’.最後的危機,隨著繼承法的無可逃避的意含而來。雖然亨利與阿拉貢的凱瑟琳的婚姻之無效論仍在羅馬裁決時,亨利與安 博林結婚,並將她加冕為王后。摩爾拒絕出席她的加冕禮。1534年,繼承法要求國王的臣民應承認亨利和安的後代為王位的繼承者;而與西班牙阿拉貢的Catherine的婚姻並非真正的,與安的婚姻才是真正的,又任何外國公親或君主的權威應該不予承認。對於上述誓言的第一部分,摩爾準備同意,但他無法接受後者,特別是在克萊門特七世教宗接下來就會宣判亨利和凱瑟琳的婚姻已有效的時候。反對該法案最終會被宣判為犯了叛國罪,所以第二次拒絕宣誓之後,摩爾與羅切斯特主教約翰 費舍爾就被投入倫敦塔關起來。當時是1534413日。摩爾生命的最後15個月一直都被囚禁在那兒。許多作了相當的努力來勸他依順法律來宣誓,可都沒成功;他的所有地產都被沒收,家人淪為窮人。在1535至高無上法案賦予國王“英格蘭教會的唯一最高負責人”的稱號生效了。54日,約翰 霍頓和其他倫敦嘉都西會(Carthusian)會員以“叛國罪”被處決,他們赴義途中特別安排給摩爾看到622日,費舍爾,摩爾的朋友和顧問,被斬首於倫敦塔山坡。 71日,摩爾因監禁而體弱多病,在西敏寺的大廳受審。他的答辯是,他的起訴書乃是直接基於與上帝和教會的法律相抵觸的議會法案,沒有任何世俗王公或法律可以凌駕來自神基督和聖彼得繼任者羅馬給予他的精神力量,正如倫敦金融城不可通過法律來約束國會,所以國會無法可依來稱其臣民有違國王的的加冕誓言之罪。
此外,儘管主教們和諸大學已同意該法案,摩爾專心7年致力於專門研究之後發現自古以來的所有博學之士無人主張任何世俗王公可能超越教會作為精神至上的主體 。在基督教中,博學的主教和道德高尚的人仍比比皆是,更不用談還有諸多聖人可效法之,他們的見解都與摩爾一致所以他對於某地域的議會訂出高於一般教會法(“上帝知道一體的教權“)和千年來的習俗的法律並沒有義務。然而,他還是被判處死刑。他以其特有而慣用方式表示,希望能和法官們可以“此後在天上歡聚,來取得我們永恆的救贖”。在他返回倫敦塔的途中,他與女兒瑪格麗特做最後的熱烈討論,她與其他家庭成員已宣了誓,可摩爾仍拒不宣誓76日他在倫敦塔山坡被斬首示眾。他最後的話是,他為神聖天主教的信仰而死,他始終都是和“國王的僕人,但神為先”。