2017年5月28日 星期日

wide-armed oak 等等

十幾年前,Simon University的一則討論。可補充的地方,想必很多。



關於The Hobbit(魔戒前傳)的小段譯評和其他

我1978年買The Hobbit,2004年初在ylib的「聊齋」,有人問(魔戒前傳)的英文名字,我寫下:「雖然我是(台灣翻譯此系列作品的)局外人,不過我認為將這一20世紀新字hobbit掩藏起來,這做法應該抗議。因為如此一來,
不利讀者與國際朋友溝通等。該書作者對於何以創此字,有一自圓其說。」

我在Simon University曾將大陸版本中的一段,請梁永安先生和張瑞麟先生評論一下
---梁兄 please comment

After that they stopped pleading. Then they took off their clothes and bathed in the river, which was shallow and clear and stony at the ford. When they had dried in the sun, which was now strong and warm, they were refreshed, if still sore and a little hungry. Soon they crossed the ford (carrying the hobbit). and then begin to march through the long green grass and down the lines of wide-armed oaks and the tall elms. ( p.102 chapter 7)

大陸版本:「小矮人不再求剛多爾夫了。他們偷了衣服到河裡洗澡。 河水清澈見底。洗完之後,他們在溫暖的陽光下曬乾,精神了許多。只是肚子餓, 身上疼。 很快他們就涉過淺灘(背著霍比特人) 向那碧綠的草地走去。 一抱粗的橡樹和高高的榆樹隨處可見。」


梁先生改譯為:「小矮人不再求剛多爾夫了。他們脫了衣服到河裡洗澡。 河水清淺 淺灘處石頭累累。洗完之後,他們在轉強轉暖的陽光下曬乾,精神了許多。只是肚子有點餓, 身上疼。 很快他們就涉過淺灘(背著霍比特人) ,走進碧綠的草地,走過一排排粗粗的櫟樹和高高的榆樹。」 


---瑞麟兄的comments. (原文彩色標示)
After that they stopped pleading. Then they took off their clothes and bathed in the river, which was shallow and clear and stony at the ford. When they had dried in the sun, which was now strong and warm, they were refreshed, if still sore and a little hungry. Soon they crossed the ford (carrying the hobbit). and then begin to march through the long green grass and down the lines of wide-armed oaks and the tall elms. ( p.102 chapter 7)

小矮人不再求剛多爾夫了。他們偷了衣服到河裡洗澡。 河水清澈見底。洗完之後,他們在溫暖的陽光下曬乾,精神了許多。只是肚子餓, 身上疼。 很快他們就涉過淺灘(背著霍比特人) 向那碧綠的草地走去。 一抱粗的橡樹和高高的榆樹隨處可見。

我還要補充幾點:
1. carrying the hobbit 原文並沒有指出 on one's back,所以譯文「背著」不知是否有前文為依據? 
2. march through 應該「要穿過去」,而不只是「向……走去」;既然是 march through,那麼就不只是碧綠的草地,我認為草深至少及腰;
3. 原文 wide-armed 前面應該有冠詞 the ,才能與後面的 the tall 對稱,而形成 the lines of the... and the ....;此段譯文「隨處可見」好像是說兩種樹零零落落的散布著,其實原文用的是 the lines,我想應該是成排成列的模樣;而 wide-armed 我不認為是「一抱粗」,應該是樹枝像兩臂張開的樣子。 RL
hc2017.5.28 補充:

Painting : "Wide Armed Oak, Nimrod Hall, Virginia" (Original art by ...


www.kesrahoffman.com/...-/Wide%20Armed%20Oak,%20Nimrod%20Hall,%20Virgi...
This Oak seems to embrace the day with it's wide span of branches. SOLD. Original Painting.



17:15 2004/2/28
我將我認為不夠好的部分加深加紅供你參考,理由大致如下:
1. stoppped 只是暫停而已,並不表示一定「不再」;
2. took off 的譯文「偷了」大概是你輸入錯誤?
3. 關於這條河的描述不夠充分,shallow 與 stony at the ford 譯文沒有表現出來;
4. 太陽是在後來才既 strong 又 warm(前段是過去完成式had dried後段是過去式was); 
5. were refreshed 的譯文「精神了許多」,不知所云?
6. begin 的時態不對,應該是 began
RL
16:40 2004/2/28

****後來我將該書的一小段送廖女士,她當時投入翻譯Pale Fire
:「我們似乎與pale特別有緣份」

Far over the misty mountains cold
To drungeons deep and caverns old 
We must away ere break of day,
To seek the pale enchanted gold.
(這是採自The Hobbit的)

又 Kazuo Ishiguro (石黑一雄)的少作 A Pale View of Hills 有人翻譯為<<群山淡景>>。

2017年5月27日 星期六

brain-inspired computing 是"腦啟發計算"嗎?

 brain-inspired computing 只是模糊的、籠統的說法,可能每個團隊界定都不同。廣義而言,過去60年的AI研究都屬此範疇。"仿腦計算"?



----
「AlphaGo出來後對行業產生了很大的影響,」北京大學研究機器學習的教授查紅彬說,「政府討論的內容變得更加廣泛,更加具體。」他補充說,不久後,政府便創立了一個關於腦啟發計算的新項目。
舍基說,儘管有政府的大力支持,這個領域內的進步最終可能會產生適得其反的效果。人工智慧可能有助於中國更好地審查互聯網,這通常會阻礙中國研究人員查找重要信息。與此同時,更好的人工智慧可能有助於中文讀者輕鬆地翻譯文章和其他信息。
「事實是,」 舍基說,「與汽車工程不同,人工智慧會帶來意想不到的事物。這將使世界變得更加不可預測,這一點從來不是北京樂見的。」
“After AlphaGo came out and had such a big impact on the industry,” said Zha Hongbin, a professor of machine learning at Peking University, “the content of government discussions got much wider and more concrete.” Shortly afterward, the government created a new project on brain-inspired computing, he added.
For all the government support, advances in the field could ultimately backfire, Mr. Shirky said. Artificial intelligence may help China better censor the internet, a task that often blocks Chinese researchers from finding vital information. At the same time, better A.I. could make it easier for Chinese readers to translate articles and other information.
“The fact is,” Mr. Shirky said, “unlike automobile engineering, artificial intelligence will lead to surprises. That will make the world considerably less predictable, and that’s never been Beijing’s favorite characteristic.”

中國雄心勃勃地改變著人工智慧領域舊有的平衡。政府和私營企業不斷向該領域投入大筆資金。與此同時,川普政府卻在削減美國發展人工智慧的開支。但僅僅投錢就夠了嗎?
CN.NYTIMES.COM

2017年5月25日 星期四

How Do You Translate a Wine? Naming wines in translation by Damion Searls


“Red” wine isn’t actually red. “White” wine isn’t white, either. What gives?


Colors, grapes, brands: the language of wine presents a bevy of problems for translators. Damion Searls reflects on the art of translating wine abroad.
THEPARISREVIEW.ORG





http://www.theparisreview.org/blog/2015/02/10/one-wine-two-wine-red-wine-blue-wine/

One Wine, Two Wine, Red Wine, Blue Wine

February 10, 2015 | by 
Naming wines in translation.
Georg_Emanuel_Opiz,_Der_Saufer_1804
Georg Emanuel Opitz, Der Säufer, 1804.
Valentine’s Day is upon us and if, to bedazzle your beau or belle, your tastes turn to thoughts of white tablecloths and candlelight, your thoughts will likely turn to tastes of wine.
But which wine? It can be hard to navigate those artisanal descriptions, so easy to mock—notes of saddle leather, jujubes, and turpentine with a hint of combed cotton, and so on. The basic questions are no simpler, though. “Red or white?” ignores orange wine, whites tinted a little longer than usual from the grape skins: basically the opposite of rosé, where red-wine grapes are peeled faster than usual. There’s also gray wine (vin gris, actually pinkish), which is white wine from black grapes usually used for red wine such as pinot noir, and even yellow wine (vin jaune), a special variety from the Jura in eastern France, though what white wine isn’t yellow when you think about it. Provençal pink wines—rosés—are colored gooseberry, peach, grapefruit, cantaloupe, mango, or mandarin, according to the Provence Wine Council: vote for your favorite here.
Vin_Jaune
Vin jaune: the author’s Valentine’s Day plans.
What are these colors anyway? “Red” wine isn’t actually red, like fire engines or stop signs, any more than “white” is white like snow or those tablecloths. And we don’t have “white grapes” in English, though we do have red: we have green grapes (and yellow raisins), and black, purple, and blue grapes, too. Color perception, and color words, are vast and fascinating topics, best plumbed in the magnificent, luxurious, inexhaustibleColor and Culture by John Gage, from which I take much of what follows. Different cultures have different color schemes, and as the centuries go by, especially if paintings and fabrics fade or are lost, it can be hard to know what people meant by a given word.
Purple, as in the Roman “royal purple” whose misusers could face the death penalty, probably meant a luster or shimmeriness, not a hue. There are color-fast artworks, like mosaics, that show garments known to be purple, but which we would now call vermillion-red, green, or black, with shimmers of light. In Medieval Spain, the word for purple meant a thick fabric, probably silk, of almost any color; the Anglo-Saxon translation of purpura was godweb: a good, or godly, weave.
Then there’s perse: no one knows what the hell that means. In the eighth century, it was a synonym for hyacinth; in Dante, it’s purple-black; at its heyday, it was the darkest and most expensive blue; its last appearance, in the mid-sixteenth century, was as the color of rust. It, too, might be more like a kind of material or some non-hue color value.
The most well-known color-translation problem is Homer’s “wine-dark sea”—the sea rarely being, of course, what we would call the color of wine of any color. Explanations relying on poetic license or metaphors of intoxicating depths quickly run aground on the rest of Homer’s color terms: He calls oxen “wine-dark,” too. The sea, when not “wine-dark,” is “violet,” an adjective he also applies to sheep. Honey is “green.” There are five words for hues in all of Homer’s work, including words for fiery-red and purple-red, but none for blue—despite living under the most splendid, perfect blue in the world, Homer calls his sky starry, or broad, or great, or iron, or copper, or bronze, but never once blue.*Kuaneos, which in later Greek meant blue, is used only for a storm cloud, Hector’s hair, Zeus’s eyebrows: “dark.” Maybe he had no choice but to call the sea wine-colored.
So about that “red” wine, maybe it’s best to stick to the winemaker’s name on the bottle? That presents other problems, in some languages. English speakers take for granted our ability to just borrow some French if we need it, for Burgundy, champagne, Château Lafite-Rothschild. We have the same alphabet as French, give or take a few accents, and more or less know how to pronounce the unfamiliar thing if we see it. Even words from non-Western languages are usually easy to transliterate: HondaAl Jazeera.
Not so in Chinese. And with high-end wine exports from France hitting record numbers this decade because of Asian demand—French wine took in ten billion euros in 2011, beating the previous record by more than 10 percent, and 2.5 billion was from Asia—what the Chinese consumer sees as a wine’s name has started to make a big difference.
The challenge of translation between Chinese and European languages never ceases to amuse, for which see any number of so-called Chinglish Web sites illustrating signs or instructions gone terribly wrong. Translations of proper nouns into Chinese pose even more problems, because a French or English syllable can be matched by a dozen or more different Chinese words, each with a different meaning. As a result, even straight transliteration runs into semantic cross fire: not only must the name be easily pronounced and appealing in Chinese, and sound roughly the same as the original, but unlike a transliteration into English it will mean something, too, one hopes something positive or brand-appropriate. It was a bummer for Microsoft that “Bing” is most naturally heard in Chinese as 病, meaning “illness” or “being sick.” Good save, though: they called their search engine bi-ying (必应), “must answer.”
The two companies you hear about who aced the challenge are Subway, which in Chinese is sai-bai-wei (赛百味), “better than a hundred flavors,” and the brilliant keh-kou keh-luh (可口可乐), which sounds like “Coca-Cola” and means “delicious happiness” or “good to drink, makes you happy.” I like Groupon’s name: gao-peng (高朋), “classy friends”; I’d probably like Groupon more if it were called Classy Friends in English, too.
What about wine? As you’d expect, total chaos. Some names could be translated (Château La Lagune as lang-lihu, “beautiful lake”), some wines simply renamed: Château Beychevelle became the auspicious longchuan (“dragon boat”), playing off the Viking ship on its label. Calon-Ségur lucked out with tianlong (sounds like “Calon,” means “dragon of heaven”); Lafite hit the jackpot with the blingy lai-fat, “Come get rich!” and became the lubricant of choice for negotiating big-money Chinese business deals. Grand Puy Lacoste got saddled with “crocodile wine,” because of the crocodile logo of Izod Lacoste, no relation. Crocodiles being neither auspicious nor tasty, sales sagged.
There have been two attempts I know of to nail this all down, in the interests of making everything easier to sell. In 2009, the publisher of Singapore’s The Wine Review and founder of the bilingual Chinese Bordeaux Guide offered phonetic translations of the top Bordeaux châteaux names; in 2012, after a year of consultation with the sixty-one châteaux in Bordeaux’s official 1855 Grand Cru classification, Christie’s unveiled its listof “official translations” and said that all but four châteaux had approved it. They also announced the first-ever Chinese wine-tasting notes, a whole other crosscultural kettle of crocodiles. They prepared a poster to be “given to Christie’s clients and journalists,” but the project seems to have quietly disappeared—as far as I know, the poster never came out, although a low-res version is used to illustrate this article.
I talked to Simon Tam, the Head of Wine, China, at Christie’s, when the plans were still moving ahead, and asked him about their translations. He wouldn’t say much about the process—was the project managed in English, Chinese, or French, for instance—but he did say that Christie’s had decided to come up with the list on their own initiative. Tam felt that “the time had come for an authority to set some standards,” and clearly Christie’s wanted to be identified with these high-quality standards. No more flat translations of Cheval Blanc as “white horse”—they looked for “characters that are elegant, less day-to-day, words that look good together.” (Still, Cheval Blanc did great at last year’s Sotheby’s auction marketed as a celebration of the Year of the Horse, andChina-savvy diplomats have already stocked up on Réserve de la Chèvre Noire, Le Bouc à trois pattes, and La Ferme Julien—goats black, three-legged, and on the bottle’s label, respectively—for next week’s Year of the Goat New Year’s gifts.)
Tam approached the châteaux and asked if they were happy with their Chinese name, and if they weren’t, he and his team offered suggestions. Their goals were “accuracy and identity,” what Tam called the château’s “brand DNA”: for instance, masculine or feminine.
Fine French wines and the booming Chinese market were “the newest combination on the block,” and “all we’ve done,” Tam said, was “fast-track it for the industry.” Here’s to fast-tracking new combinations, and maybe even some new colors, this Valentine’s Day.
*Near-quoted from William E. Gladstone, who called attention to the issue in his three-volume Studies on Homer and the Homeric Age before becoming one of the greatest British prime ministers in history: “Homer had before him the most perfect example of blue. Yet he never once so describes the sky. His sky is starry, or broad, or great, or iron, or copper; but it is never blue.” The “bronze” sky is mentioned in Gage.

Damion Searls, the Daily’s language columnist, is a translator from German, French, Norwegian, and Dutch.

“‘Red’ wine isn’t actually red, like fire engines or stop signs, any more than ‘white’ is white like snow.”
Our language columnist searches the etymology of colors for Valentine’s Day: http://bit.ly/1Fv6Pgx


Colors, grapes, brands: the language of wine presents a bevy of problems for translators. Damion Searls reflects on the art of translating wine abroad.
THEPARISREVIEW.ORG|由 TIERRA INNOVATION 上傳
 

2017年5月17日 星期三

巫寧坤 「紅色中國文學翻譯家的命運」


巫寧坤 「紅色中國文學翻譯家的命運」,收入《孤琴》台北:允晨,2008,頁233-241



紅色中國文學翻譯家的命運

「文革」後二十多年來,漢譯西方文學作品在中國大陸擁有相當廣大的市場,其中包括老一代的翻譯家的經典譯著。千千萬萬的讀者從長期文化禁錮中解放出來,如饑似渴地從禁果中吸取養分,但是有多少人會想到,在這些一部部精湛的譯著後面,掩藏著多少譯著者本人可歌可泣的故事。

「解放」初期,國事千頭萬緒,上面也許還顧不上來抓文學翻譯這般小事,文學作品翻譯工作一時還「放任自流」。久負盛名的法國文學翻譯家傅雷精心翻譯的巴爾扎克巨著《人間喜劇》選集一本接一本出版,也是出自他生花譯筆的羅曼‧羅蘭巨著《約翰‧克利斯朵夫》更成為大學生人手一冊的寶書。老作家蕭乾,四九年謝絕劍橋大學之聘,毅然從香港返京,先在英文《北京周報》工作,後來主持《譯文》月刊(後改稱《世界文學》)的編務,並親自動手翻譯了十八世紀英國小說家亨利‧菲爾丁的巨著《湯姆‧瓊斯》和捷克近代諷刺小說《好兵帥克》,這兩部譯著成為不同風格小說翻譯的典範。

五十年代初期涌現出一批優秀的青年文學翻譯家。詩人穆旦(原名查良錚)精通英文和俄文,一九五三年從美國芝加哥大學學成歸國,在南開大學外語系任教。他衷心希望「為祖國的文化繁榮多做貢獻」,利用全部假期和業餘時間,翻譯俄國和英國文學經典著作。在一九五三年底至一九五八年底的短短五年中,他出版了直接從俄文翻譯的季摩菲耶夫著《文學原理》四捲、普希金的代表作《歐根‧奧涅金》等多部長篇敘事詩、普希金抒情詩五百首、《別林斯基論文學》等。在同一期間,還出版了英國詩人拜倫、布萊克、濟慈、雪萊等人的抒情詩選。

北京大學西語系年青的英語教授吳興華,才氣橫溢,學貫中西,十六歲時發表的新詩當即被譽為「中國新詩的轉折點」。「解放」後,「追求進步」,放棄寫詩,致力於用馬克思主義觀點研究莎士比亞,深得黨組織的歡心。在五十年代中期,他用詩體翻譯的莎士比亞歷史劇《亨利五世》和《亨利四世》先後問世,立即成為文學翻譯的經典。

一九五七年「北京之春」曇花一現,文學翻譯家也紛紛墮入偉大陰謀家精心策劃的「陽謀」陷阱。傅雷多年來「追求進步」,寫給遠在波蘭的長子傅聰的每封家書中對新中國都贊不絕口。「反右」一聲炮響,他在上海竟首當其沖,成了「反黨、反人民、反社會主義」的「右派分子」。蕭乾自四九年歸國後也一直「追求進步」,這時已擔任《文藝報》副主編,「大鳴大放」期間奉命組織文藝界座談,不料竟犯了「扇風點火」罪,何況在舊社會還反對過左翼文學,理所當然戴上了「右派」帽子。吳興華從十六歲考上燕京大學,畢業後留校任教,一直在燕園埋首學術,歷史一清二白,多年來更是「思想進步」的典型,這時已提升為北大西語系副系主任,「鳴放」時曾質疑在英語教學中也要向「老大哥」學習,犯了「反蘇反共」罪,也劃為「右派」。

穆旦在「鳴放」期間未發一言,幸免於「右派」之難。可是,欲加之罪,何患無辭!一九五八年十二月,一頂「歷史反革命的帽子憑空落在一位萬里回歸的愛國詩人和文學翻譯家的頭上!由於一夥為虎作倀的宵小的陷害,他竟然被法院判決「接受機關管制三年」,逐出講堂,到南開大學圖書館「監督勞動」。

西方文學名著也隨之遭殃。《約翰‧克利斯朵夫》和女詩人楊苡翻譯的英國小說家埃米莉‧布朗蒂的經典小說《呼嘯山莊》均被列入腐蝕青年思想的「大毒草」,因為有一些大學生被劃為「右派」,被迫檢討「極端個人主義的反動思想」根源時,曾歸咎於這兩部小說的影響。一時間,紛紛揚揚,草木皆兵,北大文科學生竟然還煞有介事出版了批判小冊子,開「文革」期間無理可喻的「大批判」的先河。這兩棵「大毒草」和其它眾多「毒草」,從圖書館書架和新華書店貨架上消失,外國文學翻譯事業日漸蕭條。

更荒唐的是,一旦劃為「右派」或「歷反」,文學翻譯家不但從專業工作崗位上放逐,而且被剝奪發表譯著或任何其它作品的權利。然而,身為「賤民」,他們對文學翻譯仍然「從一而終」。傅雷閉門謝客,繼續不斷修訂《人間喜劇》選集的譯文,並完成了巴爾扎克巨著《幻滅》的翻譯。吳興華被逐出課堂,閉門從義大利文翻譯但丁的《神曲》。據穆旦的子女回憶,他在三年管制期間「完全停止了譯著,中斷了與親友的書信往來,對厄運緘口不言。」六二年解除管制後,仍在圖書館「監督使用」。盡管環境如此惡劣,心情抑鬱,穆旦開始利用工餘時間,夜以繼日翻譯拜倫的頂峰之作、兩萬行的敘事詩《唐璜》。

董樂山是文學翻譯家中的後起之秀。他「解放」初期進入新華社國際部當一名普通英文翻譯,後主持翻譯工作,五七年被劃為「右派」,下放「監督勞動」。六零年「摘帽」後回到新華社工作,倡議並和李慎之等八位同仁利用業餘時間,合譯美國記者William Shirer 的巨著The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich。譯文《第三帝國興亡》長達二百六十萬言,由樂山統一校改。一九六三年由世界知識出版社作為「內部讀物」發行,不但無稿酬,而且譯者也不得署名。

及至「文革」浩劫來臨,連無償無名的文學翻譯也無從問津了。「橫掃一切牛鬼蛇神」的聖旨一下,「有前科」的文學家,包括「摘帽右派」和解除管制的「歷反」,無一幸免。在上海,傅雷夫婦不堪「革命小將」的百般凌辱,忍無可忍,於九月三日夜間雙雙含恨自裁,遺囑中還留下現鈔五十三元五角作為火葬費,時傅雷年僅五十八歲。他的摯友周煦良教授也是著名文學翻譯家,當時也是「橫掃」對象,驚聞傅雷夫婦噩耗,於九月五日含淚寫下《弔傅雷》﹕「一街南北過從頻,倉促誰知共隔死生,未必精魂來入夢,擁衾黑坐苦思君。」

在北大風光旖旎的燕園,吳興華在烈日下勞改,口渴難堪,喝了監工的學生從未名湖中舀起的一碗濁水,數小時後倒斃,年方四十五歲。在北京市內,日本古典文學翻譯家錢稻孫被紅衛兵抄家,連床都抬走了。七十九歲的老人被打翻在地,沒多久就被迫害致死。

幸免於一死的,也逃不了掃地出門、長年批斗勞改。蕭乾是老北京,此時此際,在偌大的京城竟無立錐之地。董樂山在批臭斗臭之餘,再次押送農村勞改。以英譯中國古典和現代文學名著蜚聲國際的楊憲益和英籍夫人戴乃迭,以莫須有的「英帝特務」罪名,雙雙鋃鐺入獄,一關就是四年,出獄後方得知他們無家可歸的獨子在紅色恐怖的無情摧殘之下,神經失常,已縱火自焚喪身。

「九葉派」詩人袁可嘉曾多年參加《毛澤東選集》的英譯,又為英文版《中國文學》月刊翻譯當代詩歌和小說,後調入中國社科院外國文學研究所,工作一向兢兢業業。尼克松訪華之後,他當年在西南聯大的同學、美籍中國文學專家許芥煜教授來京訪問,準備用英文撰寫《中國文藝界》一書,不時向他瞭解國內文藝界的情況。九三年七月,許教授以「特嫌」罪名被驅逐出境,袁本人則被定為犯有「為美國間諜提供情報的反革命罪行」,敵我矛盾按人民內部矛盾處理,「帽子抓在群眾手裏」,公開批判,展覽罪行圖片,在外文所接受監督勞動,直到「文革」結束後才平反。

在天津,穆旦在南開大學遭到沒完沒了的批斗和抄家。六六年八月一個夜晚,一夥紅衛兵在他家門前燃起一堆篝火,把他的書籍和文稿付之一炬。穆旦從早上就被抓走,被批斗了一整天,直到午夜才疲憊不堪地回家,頭髮已被剃成「陰陽頭」。他對身外之物並不介意,只怕他心血結晶的《唐璜》譯稿遭逢不幸。他在滿地凌亂的雜物中搜尋,竟然發現散亂的譯稿奇跡般地幸免於難。

六八年八月,穆旦全家六口人被掃地出門,擠在一間十七平方米的東屋裏。六九年至七一年,先後在農村和「五七幹校」勞改。七二年回圖書館勞動,無家可歸,借學生宿舍一間小屋子暫住。一天勞動後,長夜孤燈,繼續翻譯《唐璜》。七三年底整理、修改、註釋完畢,用牛皮紙將一千頁的譯稿包好,試探性地投寄給北京人民出版社,次年中接到覆信,稱「《唐璜》譯文很好,現尚無條件出版,原稿社存。」

七四年至七六年,穆旦翻譯英國現代派詩歌,修訂普希金抒情詩和《歐根‧奧涅金》。七七年二月二十五日,心臟病突發,二十六日凌晨逝世,享年僅五十八歲。人死了,迫害卻仍在繼續。次年,人民文學出版社準備出版《唐璜》,南開大學那一夥落井下石的讒佞之徒又以譯者「有嚴重歷史問題」為藉口,跳出來橫加阻撓。

莫須有的「歷史問題」解決以後,八零年七月,穆旦當年在「監督勞動」之餘嘔心瀝血翻譯的《唐璜》終於由人民文學出版社出版,並立即成為公認的文學翻譯的經典。後來,他的骨灰在北京香山腳下的萬安公墓安葬時,陪葬的正是一部《唐璜》。

董樂山在農村勞改中摔傷胳膊,奉命回北京給一些幹部補習英語。七二年夏得悉人民出版社決定再版《第三帝國興亡》,以三聯書店名義出版,仍是「內部讀物」,既無稿酬,也不署名。董樂山並不計較,又用一年時間對全書校訂了一遍,七三年出版。「文革」後,世界知識出版社復業,這部巨著得正式以該社名義出版,並對外公開發行,以董樂山為首的九位譯者的大名也都印在捲首。此書一經面世,立即在全國不脛而走,給浩劫餘生的人們上了似曾相識的一課,董樂山作為翻譯家的名聲也由此確立。

一九七九年,樂山應三聯書店之約,重譯了美國記者埃德加‧斯諾的《西行漫記》,這本當年名噪一時的書曾使他對共產黨心向往之,現在卻為人們三、四十年來的親身經歷提供了觸目驚心的強烈對照。一九八四年,他出版了英國作家喬治‧奧威爾的政治恐怖預言小說《一九八四》,八八年又出版了匈牙利作家阿瑟‧庫斯特勒揭露斯大林恐怖統治的小說《正午的黑暗》。從《西行漫記》到《一九八四》和《正午的黑暗》,這恰恰勾畫出翻譯大師一生的心路歷程。

「文革」十年浩劫之後,幸存的老一輩翻譯家寥若晨星。他們以老耄之年的劫後餘生,重新投入熱愛的文學翻譯。在上海,巴金歷盡殘酷斗爭之苦和喪妻之痛,終於譯完了俄國革命民主主義者赫爾岑的回憶錄《往事與隨想》。他說﹕「我每天翻譯幾百字,我仿佛同赫爾岑一起在十九世紀俄羅斯的暗夜裏行路,我像赫爾岑詛咒尼古拉一世那樣咒罵『四人幫』的法西斯專政。」

在北京,楊憲益夫婦,置多年的牢獄之災和喪子之痛於度外,完成了被「文革」腰斬的《紅樓夢》英譯。美國文學專家、北京大學教授趙蘿蕤,早在三十年代就翻譯過美國詩人艾略特劃時代的長詩《荒原》,她的丈夫、著名詩人和考古學家陳夢家在「文革」中不堪紅衛兵輪番武斗,自殺身亡,蘿蕤本人的精神分裂症也隨之加劇。「文革」後,這位孤苦伶仃的老人,竟在一間不到十平米的住房內,完成了美國詩人惠特曼的巨著《草葉集》的翻譯,《紐約時報》曾為此在頭版專題報導。

袁可嘉在七九年平反之後,除了出版《彭斯詩鈔》等三部譯詩外,又主編了《外國現代派作品選》多捲,對新一代作家的成長頗有影響。蕭乾在《翻譯—我最後的一根稻草》一文中,回憶「文革」期間身在困厄之中,唯有翻譯給了他一些有意義工作的機會。九十年代初期,他以近九十的高齡,和夫人文潔若合作,譯完了二十世紀英語小說的頂峰之作、愛爾蘭作家喬伊斯的長篇巨著《尤里西斯》。

「春蠶到死絲方盡,蠟炬成灰淚始乾。」五十年來,多少鍾情文學翻譯的有志之士,不折不撓,前僕後繼,用自己瘡痍滿目的生命和錦繡才華編織成一件件彩色斑爛的翻譯藝術珍品。繼傅雷、吳興華、穆旦、錢稻孫等大師暴亡之後,近年來,趙蘿蕤、董樂山、蕭乾、戴乃迭等大師也先後謝世,文學翻譯史上一個血淚斑斑的時代即將結束,但這些「雖九死而不悔」的翻譯大師們留下的一座座豐碑將為中國大陸「人的現代化」繼續作出獨特的貢獻。


2002年2月於維州獵人森林公寓

2017年5月15日 星期一

Turkophile、 Turkophilism v "土耳其情操" ;E. Dale Saunders (1919–1995



Orhan Parmuk原著【伊斯坦堡:一座城市的回憶】Istanbul: Memories and the City (2003)
,何佩華譯,台北:貓頭鷹,2006

這本書的製作,有點台灣特色:譬如說第1章的圖2,遠比英文版的好:英文版採一頁,中文版採跨頁全景。最大的缺點是缺索引,所以關鍵字Bosphorus、huzun等都難以在一處掌握其全貌。其他的小缺點如人名的姓常沒翻譯,是時尚名詩人Yahya Kemal 的Kemel 是創字,可能也是土耳其國父"凱末爾" (土耳其人常稱其為Ataturk) 師法的對象。

翻譯和註解也不錯。只有 Turkophilism翻譯成"土耳其情操" (頁259)我有點不同意。
ˋ
 Turkophilism是 "Turkophile 加 ism",前者一般翻譯成"親 (護、讚美)土耳其",當然是粉絲,也可能極端第"親"土耳其的"一切"。


"情操"的意思不清楚,也許如網路說的: 
是指由感情和思想綜合起來的,不輕易改變的心理狀態。以某一或某類事物為中心的一種復雜的、有組織的情感傾向,如求知欲、愛國心等。在心理學中曾有人把情操分為求知、審美、道德、宗教四種;在現代心理學中常把人的復雜情感稱為高級情感,并分為理知感、道德感、美感等三種。作為一般語調時;情操指情感和操守的結合。



Turkophile | Define Turkophile at Dictionary.com

www.dictionary.com/browse/turkophile

Turkophile definition, Turcophile. See more. ... or Turkophile. [tur-kuh-fahyl] /ˈtɜr kəˌfaɪl/. Spell Syllables. noun. 1. a person who favors or admires Turkey, ...

Urban Dictionary: Turkophile

www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Turkophile

Oct 29, 2010 - An abnormal fondness and attachment to anything of Turkish significance, cultural.


****

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._Dale_Saunders
E. Dale Saunders (1919–1995) was an American scholar of Romance languages and literature, Japanese Buddhism, classical Japanese literature, and East Asian civilization.
Contents
  [hide]
1 Life
2 Selected works
2.1 Translations
2.2 Other works
3 External links
Life[edit]
Saunders obtained an A.B. degree from Western Reserve University in 1941 and an M.A. in Romance Philology from Harvard in 1942. He continued his studies in Japanese after joining the U.S. Naval Reserve, later earning an M.A. from Harvard in 1948 and an Doctorat de l'Université de Paris in 1953.
Saunders was a teaching fellow in Romance Languages and Literature at Harvard in 1942 and again in 1945–48. After working as instructor in French at Boston University (1946), Chargé de mission, titre étranger in the Musée Guimet in Paris (1950), Lecturer at the University of Paris (1951–52), and Assistant Professor at the International Christian University in Tokyo (1954–55), Saunders joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in 1955 as assistant professor. He became associate professor in 1963 and full professor in 1968.
Selected works[edit]
Translations[edit]
In addition to his contributions to scholarship, Saunders is known for his English translations of modern Japanese literature by authors such as Abe Kōbō (Inter Ice Age 4, The Woman in the Dunes, The Face of Another, The Ruined Map, and The Box Man) and Mishima Yukio (The Temple of Dawn in conjunction with Cecilia Segawa Seigle).
Saunders has also translated several books into French, including the three-volume A History of Japanese Literature: From the Manyoshu to Modern Times by Shūichi Katō and Le jeu de l'indulgence: Etude de psychologie fondée sur le concept japonais d'amae by Doi Takeo.
Other works[edit]
Mudra: A Study of Symbolic Gestures in Japanese Buddhist Sculpture
Mythologies of the Ancient World
Japanese Buddhism
External links[edit]
Obituary

ON THE BOSPHORUS — JOHN BERGER [1979] 之一段

ON THE BOSPHORUS — JOHN BERGER [1979]

http://hcplace.blogspot.tw/2017/04/on-bosphorus-john-berger-1979.html

下段的翻譯可討論的地方頗多!

When the ferry passes the headland, eleven minarets become visible, and you can see clearly the camel chimneys of the kitchens of the Sultan’s palace. This palace of Topkapi housed luxury and indulgence on such a scale that they percolated into the very dreams of the West; but in reality, as you can see today, it was no more than a labyrinthine monument to dynastic paranoia.

2017年5月14日 星期日

【John Berger在博斯普魯斯海峽上】(ON THE BOSPHORUS)


【John Berger在博斯普魯斯海峽上】ON THE BOSPHORUS — JOHN BERGER [1979]

我的譯文採用"子在川上"格式;所以與市面上的兩翻譯本不同。
台灣的採用【博斯普魯斯】;中國採用【在博斯普魯斯海峽】。我原採用【橫渡博斯普魯斯海峽】。

翻譯整體而言,台灣版有些政治情勢的註解,略勝中國的。

《新伊索寓言》: Molossian...;"The Joy of Sex" vs "The Joy of X".... ....

洋書的書名學問大,有的無法翻譯:

其一:這本書的作者,是一位有趣的數學家,
本書的最後一句話,是給他的人生伴侶的:
I love you,Finding(sic) you was the best problem I ever solved.
本書的譯者,也很特別,所翻譯的書,內容非常廣泛。

書名:X的奇幻旅程:從零到無限的數學(2版),原文名稱:The Joy of X: A Guided Tour of Math, from One to…
BOOKS.COM.TW


留言:書名或戲仿"The Joy of Sex"....

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《新伊索寓言》黃美惠譯,台北聯經,2000/2004第5刷
根據英國的較全版本翻譯。
當時網路還不發達,所以,有的名詞,譯註就省了。譬如215則《交戰的狼與狗》的原註(中譯):.....古希臘的風俗是以狗生長的國家和地區為牠們取名字,譬如說,Molossian、Laconian (斯巴達)獵犬......

hc:前者為古希臘地區:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molossians

2017年5月13日 星期六

鳴鼓攻中國的竄改翻譯;《希臘羅馬名人傳》 Plutarch. "Pericles". Lives 一小段:吳奚真譯、席代岳譯、梁永安


1.  http://hushihhc.blogspot.tw/2017/05/blog-post_12.html

森川裕貫 政論家の矜持: 中華民国時期における章士釗(1881~1973年)と張東ソン(1886~1973年)の政治思想《政論家的矜持:章士釗|張東蓀|政治思想》


版主:此書是森川裕貫的博士論文改寫版。比較日文原書的書名和中國的書名,讀者或許可以知道中共的書,拿掉"中華民国時期",從而讓兩位傳主從1949-1973年的言論呈現"空白"。
因為有索引,幫助我們了解許多人的看法和關係。對於胡適的看法不夠深入。

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3.【家族企業】(Family capitalism)北京:三聯,2008
中國的譯書多竄改,譬如說,本書第1頁第2段:"共產系統失靈的國家",改成"執行計畫經濟國策的國家"。
Family Capitalism — Harold James | Harvard Universi
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4. Le Corbusier 130歲:談其1911壯遊:Journey to the East /The Voyage to the East)
這是1911年的半年歐東陸、土耳其的"遊記1966年出版,已經無版權。
英文版第77頁談土耳其的"新憲法" new constitution (1909: Revisions to the 1876 constitution,詳下),中國版竟然翻譯成"新建設"。
Journey to the East
Front Cover
Le Corbusier
MIT Press, 1987 - Architecture - 270 pages
This is the legendary travel diary that the 24-year-old Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier) kept during his first journey through central and eastern Europe.......

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此著名的一小段 (下文,英文)的中譯,我讀過3人的:吳奚真譯、席代岳譯、梁永安的。

Plutarch. "Wikisource link to Pericles". Lives. Trans. John DrydenWikisource.


XIII 1As then grew the works up, no less stately in size than exquisite in form, the workmen striving to outvie the material and the design with the beauty of their workmanship, yet the most wonderful thing of all was the rapidity of their execution. Undertakings, any one of which singly might have required, they thought, for their completion, several successions and ages of men, were every one of them accomplished in the height and prime of one man's political service. 2Although they say, too, that Zeuxis once, having heard Agatharchus the painter boast of dispatching his work with speed and ease, replied, "I take a long time." For ease and speed in doing a thing do not give the work lasting solidity or exactness of beauty; the expenditure of time allowed to a man's pains beforehand for the production of a thing is repaid by way of interest with a vital force for its preservation when once produced. 3For which reason Pericles's works are especially admired, as having been made quickly, to last long. For every particular piece of his work was immediately, even at that time, for its beauty and elegance, antique; and yet in its vigor and freshness looks to this day as if it were just executed. There is a sort of bloom of newness upon those works of his, preserving them from the touch of time, as if they had some perennial spirit and undying vitality mingled in the composition of them.4Phidias had the oversight of all the works, and was surveyor-general, though upon the various portions other great masters and workmen were employed. For Callicrates and Ictinus built the Parthenon;

因為他的每一項作業,在完成地當時,就顯得古色古香,而在今天看來,它那種清新而富於生氣的樣子,卻仍然像是剛剛完成的一般。他的作品都具有一種新鮮的青春氣息,使它們的容態部會受到時間的影響,好像有一種永駐的精神和不死的活力,混合在它們的成分之中。----Plutarch著,吳奚真譯希臘羅馬名人傳》,台北: 中華,民73/1984,五刷。頁106





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希臘羅馬名人傳(全三冊)

作者:普魯塔克;席代岳譯
出版社:台北:聯經/吉林出版集團有限責任公司
出版日期:2009年09月01日



《希 臘羅馬名人傳》(The live of the Noble Grecians and Romans)又稱《對傳》(Parallel lives),簡稱《名人傳》或《傳記集》。它是羅馬帝國早期希臘傳記作家和倫理學家普魯塔克(Lucius MestriusPlutarch,約公元46-120年)的傳世之作,也是西方紀傳體歷史著作之濫觴。

第五篇 政略決勝者 281
第一章 伯里克利(Pericles) 283




-----梁永安譯

這一點讓伯里克利的幾件傑作尤其讓人印象深刻,因為它們雖然完成得極快,但又極耐久。就美來說,它們在自己的時代便立刻成為經典,但就元氣來說,它們又是萬古常新,就像剛剛落成。它們儼如永遠盛放的鮮花,從不受時間的侵蝕,彷彿已被注入常綠精神和永不衰老的靈魂。------ http://hccart.blogspot.tw/2017/05/parthenon-enigma-new-understanding-of.html 《帕德嫩之謎:古希臘雅典人的世界The Parthenon Enigma: A New Understanding of the West’s Most Iconic Building and the People who Made It