2016年9月28日 星期三

文樹德(Paul U. Unschuld), the art of serious translation

文樹德(Paul U. Unschuld)
our one-year field research on Taiwan (1969-1970),

文樹德對這兩種思維方式均發起了挑戰。他剛完成了對中醫基礎著作《黃帝內經》三個主要部分歷時28年的英語翻譯工作。譯作已由加州大出版社(University of California Press)出版。但不同於西方中醫學院使用的很多教科書,文樹德的著作是嚴肅翻譯藝術的典範 (?monuments 無"典範"意思)。他會避免像「energy」(能量)這種新世紀 (hc:錯誤翻譯) 術語或「pathogen」(病原體)這類熟悉的西醫術語,認為這兩類詞對古代的作者及其世界觀不公平。
Dr. Unschuld is a challenge to both ways of thinking. He has just finished a 28-year English translation of the three principal parts of the foundational work of Chinese medicine: the Huangdi Neijing, or Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic, published by the University of California Press. But unlike many of the textbooks used in Chinese medicine schools in the West, Dr. Unschuld’s works are monuments to the art of serious translation; he avoids New Age jargon like “energy” or familiar Western medical terms like “pathogens,” seeing both as unfair to the ancient writers and their worldviews.

但這反映出了對古代作者深深的敬意,這正是詆毀中醫的人有時候所缺乏的。文樹德對晦澀的說法一查到底,並發明了一些前後統一的術語。它們有時候不容易讀懂,但卻忠實於原文。幾乎所有人都認為他的譯文是開創性的。這是首次有人用一門西方語言的形式,讓人們能夠完整地讀到成書於2000多年前的中醫基礎著作。
對很多人來說,中醫是在西方佔統治地位的工業化、化學品化醫學的替代物,
也有人認為,中醫和江湖騙術相差無幾,其成功源自心理安慰和民間的偏方。
對於以上觀點,西方研究中醫療法的著名權威文樹德怎麼看?
文樹德是最早用系統嚴肅的方式對待中醫的西方學者之一。在他看來,中醫不是西方醫學的替代物,也並非江湖騙術;中醫思想像是中國人心態的寓言,甚至能解釋中國的崛起。
CN.NYTIMES.COM


An Interview With Dr. Paul Unschuld - Acupuncture Today

www.acupuncturetoday.com/archives2004/jul/07bauerunschuld.html
Matthew Bauer (MB): Could you tell us how you became interested in the study of the history Chinese medicine?
Paul Unschuld (PU): In the 1960s, while I studied at the Munich University School of Pharmacy, I was quite interested in international relations. With the Cold War tensions easing a bit in Europe, the fighting between China and the Soviet Union caught our attention. As I was quite fluent in Russian, I thought I should study Chinese to be able to read information from their side, too, so I enrolled in Chinese language courses. After graduation, in 1968, my wife and I applied for a grant to visit Taiwan (the only part of China accessible to a West German at the time) to improve our spoken Chinese. With our pharmaceutical background, we thought it would be most appropriate to research the situation of medical care and pharmaceutical supplies in Taiwan. We knew little of Chinese traditional medicine when we arrived, but met a scholar, Dr. Na Qi, who introduced us to the history of Chinese pharmaceutical literature and the current status of Chinese traditional pharmacy on Taiwan. He also informed me of the works of the eminent Japanese researcher of Chinese traditional medical and pharmaceutical literature, Dr. Okanishi Tameto, who I had a chance to meet in Kyoto a few years later, shortly prior to his passing away.
It soon became evident that to understand the presence of Chinese traditional medicine, one needs to understand the past. During our one-year field research on Taiwan (1969-1970), I interviewed more than a hundred physicians and pharmacists of Chinese traditional medicine. Many conflicting interpretations of past developments and of the essence of Chinese medicine came to my attention. Also, structural peculiarities, such as the doctor-patient relationship in Chinese traditional medicine, and the fact that physicians often are employees of pharmacies, raised our interest and led us to devote more time to historical research. My wife used the time in Taiwan to study the beginnings of the Chinese pharmacology of systematic correspondences during the Song, Jin and Yuan dynasties. A Yuan dynasty materia medica, Wang Haogu's Tangye Bencao, was the focus of her dissertation. I concentrated my research on the current situation of Chinese traditional medicine in Taiwan, and it was only after our return to Germany that I took the lead, outlined in my wife's dissertation (namely to trace fundamental conceptual changes in Chinese medicine to similarly fundamental changes in the sociopolitical environment), to examine larger time sections of Chinese medical history. This eventually led to my Medicine in China: A History of Ideas. If I had played with the thought of becoming a specialist in Sino-Soviet relations before we went to Taiwan, being back in Munich, a future devoted to the history of medicine in China appeared much more fascinating.
MB: A central theme of your work is the importance of considering the cultural environment in which medical theories develop, also known as the "external history" of medicine. Could you elaborate on this?
PU: Medical practitioners may decide what they want to be: mechanics or intellectuals. The mechanic views the body as a machine that, every now and then, requires repair. He does not need to know much about the mental condition of his patients, and he does not bother much why he does this or that. He has learned that one intervention will be able to deal with problem "A," and another intervention will successfully cure problem "B."
The intellectual healer follows a different course. He wants to know why biomedicine has arrived at its current notions of the origin and nature of disease, and at therapeutic interventions derived from them. He wants to know what the essential difference is between different health care traditions, and he wishes to have arguments (and be able to voice these arguments) as to why he prefers one approach over another. The intellectual healer may realize that one type of health care is good for a certain portion of his clientele, while the mental set-up of another portion of his clientele requires a different therapeutic approach.
To be able to understand the paths Western and Chinese traditions of health care have taken, it is essential to study the cultural environments in which they have developed. Medicine cannot be understood without its external history. Anybody who criticizes biomedicine for whatever shortcomings or deficits it has - and it has many - and wishes to change things or create a better medicine, will end up as a Don Quixote if he does not take the cultural environment, or external history, of medicine into account. An awareness of the close links between the conceptual foundations of health care traditions and their cultural environment makes one understand, first, that medicine cannot change without changes in the world view and/or existential experiences of a given population, and, second, that certain patients cannot be successfully treated by means of therapies legitimated by a world view that is not their own. What it comes down to is the following: to study the cultural history of human reactions to existential threats such as illness and the danger of early death means to study the essence of the human condition. To reach an understanding of the human condition and assist one's patients to overcome episodes of disease, or to prevent disease - that is the difference between an intellectual physician and a mechanic.
MB: Could you expand on why you focus much of your work on comparing the history of Western and Chinese medicine and how important you believe it is for advocates of Chinese medicine in the West to understand these subjects?
PU: Why do I teach medical students the history of European and Chinese medicine? Medicine develops not only with its cultural environment, it also develops amidst a political arena. Anybody who grew up in a Western society and develops an interest in Chinese traditional medicine is confronted with an import from a foreign culture. How does he or she know whether the product taught by his teacher, whether Chinese or Western, is genuine? How does he or she know whether the literature offered reflects true Chinese medicine, or the views of some more or less ill-informed writer? It is a fact that more than 95 percent of all literature published in Western languages on Chinese medicine reflect Western expectations rather than Chinese historical reality. Bestsellers are usually written by those who know no Chinese, have no access to Chinese medical history, and have never - or at best for short periods - been to China.
There is, I wish to emphasize, nothing wrong with these books, as they were informed by visions of an ideal health care presumably developed in China. As such, these books tell us something about what is lacking in Western biomedicine, and what is expected by many as a remedy to cure an ailing Western health care system. This way, these books fulfill an important function. They suggest ways to improve or circumvent biomedicine, and offer ideas and strategies that may be helpful for many. Nevertheless, while they reflect Western yearnings, they fail to reflect the historical truth of Chinese medicine. Chinese medical history is, indeed, a huge treasure box, and given that TCM has selected only parts of its contents, serious historical research may turn up many more.
MB: (Laughing) The publisher of my forthcoming book will be happy to hear that I meet two and perhaps all three of your criteria for a bestseller. Seriously though - what advice would you have for individual practitioners who wish to learn more about the history of Chinese medicine and for acupuncture/ Oriental Medicine schools who want to include that subject in their curriculum, especially at the level of the recently established Doctoral degree program?
PU: Unfortunately, there is very little available in Western languages on the history of Chinese medicine. No research institute exists in the West where the history of Chinese medicine is researched systematically over an extended period of time. Nevertheless, the body of scholarly works on the history of Chinese health care traditions is steadily growing. Don Harper's profusely annotated translation and analysis of the Mawangdui manuscripts is indispensable for an understanding of the pre-conditions of the subsequent emergence of Chinese medicine in the Han era. Kim Taylor's book Chinese Medicine in Early Communist China is required reading if one wishes to understand the politics behind the formation of TCM. Paul Buell has published a dietary work from the Mongol dynasty, A Soup for the Qan with most informative annotations, and Nigel Wiseman has contributed the most reliable translation available of Zhang Ji's Shanghan Lun of the late Han dynasty.
I myself have conducted my own research partly to meet the interests of my students, some of whom attend medical school; others are in Chinese studies. Thus, I have offered initial studies of the history of Chinese pharmaceutical literature, of the history of ideas in Chinese medicine, and of several seminal texts, such as the Nanjing of the 1st century AD, Xu Dachun's "On the Origin and Further Development of Medicine" of the 18th century, the ophthalmological treatise "Essentials on the Silver Sea" of perhaps the 15th/16th century (together with J. Kovacs), and together with H. Tessenow and J.S. Zheng the introductory volume to the Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen translation project. This book (Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text), together with the Nanjing translation, may be my most important contribution to the emerging picture of the beginnings of Chinese medicine in the Han era. Anybody who is interested in knowing the true historical origins of Chinese medicine should read this introductory volume to the Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen project. It is only with this background in mind that one is able to reach an informed judgment on what early Chinese medicine may contribute to our health care needs today.
Also, I have shown, in Chinese Medicine in Historical Objects and Images, the value of material objects as sources for a more comprehensive understanding of Chinese medical history. It should be hoped that more will be published. For the time being, however, readings from these books will be very helpful to learn more about the history of Chinese medicine.
At present, I am working on a revised edition of Introductory Readings in Classical Chinese Medicine. This reader offers a wide selection of most informative texts from two millennia of Chinese health care traditions.


2016年9月27日 星期二

譯人:張心漪《心漪集》、夏丏尊

    讀"譯人:張心漪"有感:
    2016.9.28,張心漪先生百歲,我取得一本2007的《心漪集》(Recollection)--這英文書名就是妙譯。2007的《心漪集》(Recollection),書名就是妙譯。
    1971年的「不連續的年代」,現在作者一般都譯為"彼得杜拉克",有趣的是,中國採用「德魯克」。這本書,台灣有幾個譯本,我讀協志工業本「斷絕的時代」。現在看到葉公超先生在封面上,真是好奇。1987年的「沙地郡曆誌」成書之不易,從 張心漪女士的"獻給我所紀念的人---譯後記"可知。不知道為什麼還有新譯本:「沙郡年記」(台北:天下文化,1998 






  1.  注音一式 ㄒ|ㄚˋ ㄇ|ㄢˇ ㄗㄨㄣ
     漢語拼音 xi  mi n z n 注音二式 shi  mi n tzu n
    人名。(西元1886~1946)原名鑄,以字行,浙江上虞人,現代散文家。留學日本,返國後任教於浙江第一師範及上虞春暉中學,後任暨南大學文學院院長,且為開明書店創辦人之一。夏氏畢生從事文藝創作及翻譯,致力國文教材之編著。其散文清新流利、溫潤雋永。著有文章作法、平屋雜文,譯有愛的教育續愛的教育近代日本小說集,編有開明國文講義等。

  2. 夏丏尊在1923年翻譯了義大利作家亞米契斯的名著《愛的教育》。該書風行二十餘年,再版三十餘次。1928年,夏擔任開明書店編譯所所長。









    1. 夏丏尊- 維基百科,自由的百科全書 - Wikipedia

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      夏丏尊(1886年-1946年4月23日),本名夏鑄,字勉旃,號悶庵,浙江上虞松廈人。中國近代教育家、散文家。 夏丏尊祖上經商,父親是個秀才。幼在家塾讀書,能作八股 ...
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  4. 翻譯偵探事務所: 張心漪:像媽媽一樣的譯者

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    Sep 3, 2014 - 張心漪(1916- )是名門之後,曾國藩的外曾孫女,出生於上海,念過當時名門閨秀雲集的中西女中,燕京大學畢業,臺大外文系教授,曾教過白先勇那一 ...
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  5. 我取自己有的幾本:



這本張心漪譯的「慈母心」,1952年十月出版,由台鐵刊物暢流半月刊出版,應該是張心漪在台灣最早的譯作。這本作品曾在1976年由純文學重出,書名改題「媽媽的 ...
----
這本書,台灣有幾個譯本,我讀協助工業本「斷絕的時代」。現在看到葉公超先生在封面上,真是好奇。
1971年重要的趨勢書「不連續的年代」,現在作者一般都譯為彼得杜拉克,有趣的是,中國採用
「德魯克」。
----
國立編譯館1973年版的國中國文課本第三冊第十四課「寄子書」,修伍德安德生寫的,就是張心漪翻譯的。初版是香港今日世界(1968),原名「美國名家書信選集」,大地出版社1987年重出,改題「名人書信選集」。現在重看這封信,竟然還有點印象,只是當時對安德生一點印象都沒有,只記得他叫兒子多素描:

親愛的約翰:有件事我昨天信裡應該提的。是關於繪畫的事。不要因為一幅畫是現代的,是最新的就跟它學。到羅浮宮去,花多點時間鑑賞林布蘭、德拉克洛瓦的作品。學習素描,使你的手能不知不覺地熟練,能筆隨意走,然後你可想到你面前的東西。....關於顏色,你要小心。多到大自然裡去找,別到顏料店去找──那是別人的調色板──而在各種光線下看房屋的側面。你不會一下子登峰造極。成功是吃盡辛苦得來的。    我所企望的不是你的成功。我希望你對於人,對於工作,都抱著正確的態度。單是這一點也許就可以使你成為大丈夫了。



1968年「美國名家書信選集」

Charles A. Beard  回信給:DurantWill (1885-1981)的部分:
"When we analyze ourselves we find conflicting motives. We have moments of shivering selfishness, when we think only of our personal gain. And we have moments of exaltation when we feel the thrill of the prodigious and hear the call to high action. That seems to be true of all men and women, high and low, and the outcome in each case is a matter of proportion.
"For myself I may say that as I look over the grand drama of history, I find (or seem to find) amid the apparent chaos and tragedy, evidence of law and plan and immense achievement of the human spirit in spite of disasters. I am convinced that the world is not a mere bog in which men and women trample themselves in the mire and die. Something magnificent is taking place here amid the cruelties and tragedies, and the supreme challenge to intelligence is that of making the noblest and best in our curious heritage prevail. If there was no grand design in the beginning of the universe, fragments of one are evident and mankind can complete the picture. A knowledge of the good life is our certain philosophic heritage, and technology has given us a power over nature which enables us to provide the conditions of the good life for all the earth's multitudes. That seems to me to be the most engaging possibility of the drama, and faith in its potentialities keeps me working at it even in the worst hours of disillusionment. The good life -- an end in itself to be loved and enjoyed; and intelligent labor directed to the task of making the good life prevail. There is the little philosophy, the circle of thought, within which I keep my little mill turning.
"This is the appearance of things as I see them, and even profound philosophers can merely say what they find here." (這篇的翻譯,請參考《美國名家書信選集》張心漪譯,香港:今日世界,1968,頁267-68。) 
----

「沙地郡曆誌」是張心漪最後一本譯作,1987年出版,她已年過七十。這本A Sand County
Almanac
是環保界的經典,後來有另二個譯本「沙郡年記」(台北:天下文化,1998 )、「沙郡年紀」(台北:果力,2015 )。張心漪的丈夫費驊在1984年過世,費驊曾任財政部長,是台灣國家公園的催生者,馬以工以紀念費驊為理由,說動了高齡的張心漪翻譯此書,也因此這是她唯一一本冠夫姓的譯作。
1987年新環境出版社的「沙地郡曆誌」,署名「費張心漪」



台灣最不老的作家 張心漪 終身學習,把93歲活得像41歲
作者:黃漢華
出處:2008年5月號《遠見雜誌》 第263期
每個星期二早上,93歲的張心漪必定坐在書法家陳瑞庚旁邊,提起手腕寫書法。穿著旗袍套裝的她不戴老花眼鏡,一點一橫,專心把字寫好。
     24年了,每週兩小時的書法課,張心漪從沒間斷,每次上課也始終面帶微笑,沒喊過累,一個字接著一個字寫。陳瑞庚不拘小節,常忘記待客禮數,張心漪就調皮地用拳頭敲桌子,大喊,「老師,茶呢?」66歲的書法家一聽,只得連忙去端茶。
     到了星期四,張心漪還是整齊的旗袍套裝,她穿著亮鑽紅色絲絨尖頭包鞋,手拄枴杖,一早就來到音樂老師彭樂天的琴房。她拿起麥克風,從丹田發聲、練唱,詠唱曲中意境。
     學了將近十年的歌唱,張心漪興致不減,前年在台北市中山堂表演獨唱。問她都快當人瑞了,為什麼還能學而不倦?「學習讓我快樂、聰明,哈哈哈,」她的心境盡在爽朗的笑聲裡。

愈活愈美,活出長者的智慧
     張心漪,一位歷經八年抗戰、見證國民黨政府遷台的女性。她是清朝名將曾國藩的外曾孫女,先生費驊當過財政部長,弟弟張心洽是前中華開發總經理,台灣大哥大總經理張孝威是她外甥,費驊、張心洽、張孝威更是知名的美國艾森豪獎學金唯一一家三人上榜的得主。
     張心漪更是中、英文造詣深厚,和已故作家殷張蘭熙是文友,曾經在報章雜誌發表多篇小說、散文,譯作包括《林肯外傳》《殘百合》等十冊,更在台大外文系任教過25年,作家白先勇、陳若曦、王文興見了她,都得喊她一聲「老師」。
     去年底,她更集結30歲到70多歲的作品,出版《心漪集》,堪稱台灣最年長的作家。
     透過這本書,讀者能窺見這棵文壇長青樹如何規劃豐富的退休生活。
     「她活出長者的智慧,那是心靈的美,」陳瑞庚這樣形容年紀和他媽媽差不多的「學生」。






內容簡介

一點都仿不來的紫玫瑰,歲月裡的無邊風景! 
  她,是曾國藩的後代,是台大外文系教授,是財政部長夫人,是專業翻譯,是作家,也是實踐生命的生活家!   
  那個繁華而動盪的年代,出身自中國傳統禮教大家庭的她,帶著溫潤的性格進入教會學校學習外文、數學與音樂,開放積極的西方教育薰陶了性情,也擴大了藝文的視野。居安的婚姻生活,更讓她盡情釋放才能,悠游於教育、社福、家庭、個人嗜好各個領域,適切扮演每一個角色,從縫紉、畫圖到專擅的外文能力、為台灣崇她總社的社福服務創下盛期,她是幸運的,也是盡情付出的純善者,在舊時代裡優雅且主動地追求理想、實踐生活。
  現年九十餘高齡的她,依舊秉持樂觀的性子,多方嘗試並主導生活樂趣;她穿著一襲素雅旗袍,跑到法國麗池飯店學法國料理,又到海德堡讀德文,也到劍橋選修課程進修、每年都要抽空旅行,可說是自助旅行的最高齡紀錄保持者。《心漪集》本書溫潤雅麗,中英文對照,文如其人的清麗創作、是外和內荏的傳家本、也是一段芳馨的時代記憶。
作者簡介
張心漪
  1916 年出生於上海,曾任台大外文系教授、翻譯、作家,現任國際崇她中華民國總社顧問。
  從小出身自中國傳統禮教大家庭的她,不僅飽讀中國古典文學、詩詞,並接觸進而熟稔英文、數學及西洋音樂課程。她曾進入中西女子學校、貝滿女子中學、燕京及滬江大學求學,在西式教育的薰陶下養成思想開放及樂觀的人格特質。這段求學的過程,讓她愛上了英國文學,並且認識了許多鼓勵她創作的師友。
  婚後,遇上了戰爭,歷經了生活的艱難、轟炸、生離死別,然而,與丈夫所攜手熬過的這段艱苦日子,卻也成為了日後最難以忘懷的回憶。至今,子孫滿堂仍舊活潑充滿好奇心的她,喜歡旅行與談天,尤其喜歡與人接觸,她的靈活與好學,可從那間擁有豐富藏書,角落不時可見小零食、盆栽的書房可為最佳性格描繪。

心漪集

Recollection

目錄

推薦序
心漪學姊 周聯華
崇她褓母 辜嚴倬雲
費伯母 馬以工
媽媽 丁費宗清
百寶箱 丁廣?
■創作篇
外婆的珍藏
回憶
那兒
小樂:一個不會走路的小孩
解語垣
■散文篇
閒話老年
「難養」與「難為」──由孔夫子起古今中外談女子
我的外婆崇德老人聶曾紀芬
三代同堂
開心七個字
假如我有一位太太
■翻譯篇
談翻譯
媽媽的銀行存款
天倫樂
林肯外傳
殘百合
家政教育
少年遊
如夢令、午酒歌、舊家風
菩提樹
不連續的時代
名人書信選集
砂地郡曆誌
■SHORT STORIES英文短篇故事
My Grandmother’s Treasures
Recollection
There
Robbie—The Boy Who Could Not Walk
a fantasy (partly written in polyphonic prose)
The Whispering Wall
■ESSAY隨筆
Chinese Lady’s Faith
A Letter from My Rader
A Fashionable Subject
The Engineers in My Life
My Grandmother
My Autobiography
Growing Old Gracefully
My Life with Books
If Only I Had a Wife
The Plight of Being a Housewife
Happy Thoughts

Google’s new translation software is almost as good as human translators";簽到處";讓Facebook和Google 翻譯PK一次; "他們往往落後於進度表,而預算超支"


Google’s latest advance in machine learning could make the world feel a little smaller.

A jump in the fluency of Google’s language software will help efforts to make…
TECHNOLOGYREVIEW.COM|由 TOM SIMONITE 上傳
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廣東省政府的英文翻譯:簽到處(Sign Everywhere)
廣州東方賓館今天下午舉行「一帶一路」自貿區論壇,粵港澳多名官員出席,香港記者發現會場指示牌和指引翻譯讓人笑翻肚子
這其實是Google 的翻譯作品。
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評:Cool: Facebook有"酷",贏過Google的"涼爽"。
接下來,句子結構和單字,Google大贏Facebook。

版主翻譯:起先有酷點子。然後再造一超大型處理器,它是一個巨大的16位元計算機,由手工焊接晶體管組成,加上主人的鐵的決心所做出來的。


IEEE Spectrum

Google翻譯 :有涼爽。再有就是在Megaprocessor,一個巨大的16位做出來的手工焊接晶體管和鐵的決心計算機。

There's cool. And then there's the Megaprocessor—a giant 16-bit computer made out of hand-soldered transistors and iron resolve.
Facebook翻譯:有很酷的. 然後有megaprocessor-一個巨大的16-bit電腦做的手工soldered電晶體鐵和決心.



The wondrous insanity of a 42,300-transistor CPU the size of a room
SPECTRUM.IEEE.ORG


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“論文作者們在個別基礎設施項目上的數據告訴我們,中國在管理基礎設施項目方面不好也不壞,基本上和世界其他地方差不多——就像其他地方一樣,他們往往落後於進度表,而預算超支,”北京龍洲經訊(Gavekal Dragonomics)中國研究總監白安儒(Andrew Batson)表示。

“The authors’ data on individual infrastructure projects tell us that China is basically no worse and no better than the rest of the world in terms of managing infrastructure projects — just like everywhere else, they often run behind schedule and over budget,” said Andrew Batson, China research director at Gavekal-Dragonomics in Beijing.  --China infrastructure investment model under fire

they often run behind schedule and over budget
評: "他們往往落後於進度表而預算超支"---這逗點很奇怪,或許不該將and 前後項分開或用"而"。要拆的話,"他們往往進度落後、預算超支"


2016年9月26日 星期一

"重譯本" 的品管:台灣書市問題;舊俄小說的"名家新英譯本"THE IDIOT by Fyodor Dostoevsky

近幾年,見過不少舊俄小說的"名家新英譯本"。
這現象一則說明名作都有丛新翻譯的"需要"與"可能"。
新譯本要由名家來才有品質保證和意義。
台灣書市很隨便,隨便找個外文系畢業生"重譯",再由某教授掛名"審定"的障眼法。




“It is better to be unhappy and know the worst, than to be happy in a fool's paradise.”
―from THE IDIOT by Fyodor Dostoevsky
In THE IDIOT, the saintly Prince Myshkin returns to Russia from a Swiss sanatorium and finds himself a stranger in a society obsessed with wealth, power, and sexual conquest. He soon becomes entangled in a love triangle with a notorious kept woman, Nastasya, and a beautiful young girl, Aglaya. Extortion and scandal escalate to murder, as Dostoevsky’s “positively beautiful man” clashes with the emptiness of a society that cannot accommodate his innocence and moral idealism. The Idiot is both a powerful indictment of that society and a rich and gripping masterpiece. From award-winning translators, a masterful new translation–never before published–of the novel in which Fyodor Dostoevsky set out to portray a truly beautiful soul. READ more here: http://knopfdoubleday.com/b…/225772/the-idiot/9780375413926/





2016年9月25日 星期日

Trump:翻譯成川普、特朗普、杜林普、;Theresa May:文翠珊、梅、梅伊;Siberia 西伯利亞 Sibir



Donald Trump翻譯成川普;中國翻譯成“特朗普” (新華通信社)
在川普夫人的網站上,她曾宣稱自己獲得了建築專業的本科學位,但遭到不少記者的質疑,稱她只念了一年就去米蘭發展模特事業。nytimes
「當我走上大會的舞台,身後有一張兒子的巨幅照片,我一時無法控制自己。而又有哪位母親可以呢?特朗普也有自己的摯愛,難道他真的需要知道我為什麼沉默不語嗎?」http://bbc.in/2aI19er
美國總統大選首場電視辯論正在進行,節目歷時1.5小時,主題為「美國的方向、實現繁榮、維護國家安全」,並分成6個環節。
早在上個月開始,希拉莉已經請來政治顧問扮演杜林普,以進行模擬訓練;杜林普一方則透過競選團隊,表達了必定會勝出辯論的決心⋯

*****

Theresa May to become British prime minister in fast-track political transition
Washington Post - 14 hours ago

Theresa May的部分翻譯:

香港與英國有淵源,所以都採"文翠珊"。
作為英國第二位女首相,文翠珊將於7月13日正式上任英國首相,而她也宣佈其執政團隊將有三大目標,究竟她的上任能否平復英國因脫歐帶來的經濟不穩?http://bit.ly/29KY8cX
台灣:梅、梅伊 (中央社)
新華社:特雷莎·
DW:英国版"默克尔"-特里莎·梅

特麗莎·梅將接任英國首相 --紐約時報

*****
.....貝加爾湖以東的東西伯利亞。這一帶,在匈奴西遷後,成為鮮卑人的天下。西伯利亞Siberia 一辭,應該源自「鮮卑人(Sibel?)的地方」。縂之,我不太認為是「安靜的土地」。


Siberia譯為"西伯利亞",似乎來自日文直接說Sibir:

[名詞]
  1. 1シベリア.
    ◆ロシア語名 Sibir'.
  2. 2流刑地;(左遷されて飛ばされる)不便な遠隔の勤務地;(罰として課される)嫌な仕事.
語源
<ロシア語 Sibir' シビル・ハン国(16世紀に西シベリアに建てられたウズベク族の国)

Wikipedia

Etymology[edit]

Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir).[2] Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sipyrs (ru), a mysterious people later assimilated to Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name appeared in the Russian language after the conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims that the region was named after the Xibe people.[3] The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north" (север,sever),[4] but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation[5] on the grounds that the neighbouring Chinese, Arabs and Mongolians (who have similar names for the region) would not have known Russian. His own suggestion is that the name represents a combination of two words, "su" (water) and "bir" (wild land).

The Sibe or Xibo[2] (Sibe.png IPA: [ɕivə];[2] simplified Chinese锡伯traditional Chinese錫伯pinyinXībó) are a Tungusic people living mostly in XinjiangJilin (bordering North Korea) and Shenyang in Liaoning.[2] The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.  

族源[編輯]關於錫伯族的族源,主要有兩種說法。一種為鮮卑後裔說,認為「錫伯」是「鮮卑」的轉音,錫伯族由鮮卑人留在北方沒有南下、沒有與漢族融合的一支發展而來[1][2][3][4]。另一種為建州女眞同源說,認為錫伯族和滿族同源,都是女真人的後裔[5][6]。還有人認為,錫伯族不與滿族同宗、也不屬於東胡,而與鄂倫春族同祖[7]
鮮卑後裔說為錫伯族內部大多數人所認可[8]:10,近年還得到了分子人類學DNA證據支持[9][10]











Siberia 

Pronunciation: /sʌɪˈbɪərɪə/ 









A vast region of Russia, extending from the Urals to the Pacific and from the Arctic coast to the northern borders of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China. Noted for the severity of its winters, it was traditionally used as a place of exile; it is now a major source of minerals and hydroelectric power.

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陳耀昌新增了 3 張相片
2小時
西伯利亞,鮮卑,隋唐,芬蘭
最近遊俄羅斯,配合俄國歷史,自莫斯科坐西伯利亞大鐵路一路往東,直到海參崴。但我發現,我最有感,最有興趣的,其實是貝加爾湖以東的東西伯利亞。這一帶,在匈奴西遷後,成為鮮卑人的天下。西伯利亞Siberia 一辭,應該源自「鮮卑人(Sibel?)的地方」。縂之,我不太認為是「安靜的土地」。
鮮卑人的拓拔氏(拓拔珪)往南,建立了北魏王國,後來漢化了,成為北齊北周。
隋朝的楊堅,是為鮮卑人効力的漢人。楊堅篡北周,是漢人向鮮卑人奪權。
唐朝的李家,則是鮮卑血統為主,但混了一些漢人血緣。唐朝取代隋朝,是鮮卑人向漢人反奪權成功。其DNA,倫理觀念,還是偏向鮮卑人的。
所以隋,唐,在政權本質上,有些不同。唐朝,是漢化的鮮卑人建立的朝代。隋朝,則是鮮卑化的漢人建立的。
唐高宗會娶老爸的妃子武媚娘,還册為皇后;李隆基會公然霸占兒子的老婆,封為貴妃。這些都是鮮卑傳統,不是什麼唐朝人比較開放。宋朝,明朝則完全回歸漢人的儒家傳統觀念,號稱「禮教」。綁得死死的,才好統治。
唐代女人的服裝與審美觀,也和傳統漢人不同。漢人喜瘦,所以「楚王愛細腰」,「趙飛燕能作掌上舞」。鮮卑人出自北方,要胖一些,壯一點,才能活得健康快樂。所以喜歡稍胖一些的。燕瘦環肥,有環境及生態因素,不是只有時尚偏好不同。雖然唐朝到玄宗天寶己近百年,但楊玉環跳的還是胡旋舞,不是西域胡人或北方安祿山跳的,根本是自家傳統的「民族舞蹈」。
李隆基看安祿山,也不盡然是胡人異族,而是同為鮮卑大家族,否則也不會那麼重用他。(開個玩笑:好像我看胡德夫啦。哈哈哈。)
隋煬帝楊廣雖然漢人血統較多,但也習於鮮卑人看法,所以殺父,接收了父親寵妃宣華夫人,在當時也是習俗而己。是宋朝以後的漢人,才大驚小怪。還有,因為宣華夫人是南朝出身,漢人思維,所以認為是被庶子楊廣侮辱了。
我突然異想天開。芬蘭名作曲家,寫「芬蘭頌」的西伯留斯Sibelius,他的名字是否就是「鮮卑人」的意思?
我們都說芬蘭人Finns 是東方人過去的。
匈牙利之名,與匈奴Huns有關(匈奴應該是「匈族」,自大的漢人加了「奴」字)。Finns,不知源於何字?匈奴入東歐較早,是西元五、六世紀之前。西元七、八世紀的隋唐以後,保留傳統的鮮卑人在東方失勢,遂西遷入歐,也許就到了芬蘭。他們本來就習慣寒冷的地方。於是後代有了鮮卑人Sibelius 這個姓氏。
「胡」言亂語一番。Sibelius 不要怪我。他是我最喜歡的音樂家之一。他的作品,大部分人都提「芬蘭颂」。其實他的第一號及第二號交響曲,才是天才之作!
圖一:鮮卑汗國的地域,恰恰等於今之西伯利亞。
PS:我㝍這一篇,另一目的是在強調「北方漢人」與「南方漢人」的不同。