2014年12月29日 星期一

量詞:一聽; cross-sensitization, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward

 If you consider that the added sugar in a single can of soda might be more than most people would have consumed in an entire year, just a few hundred years ago, you get a sense of how dramatically our environment has changed. 如果我們思考一下,今天一聽碳酸飲料里含有的添加糖分,可能高於幾百年前多數人一整年消耗的糖分,就能明白我們周圍的環境發生了多麼巨大的改變。http://cn.nytimes.com/opinion/20141225/c25dinicolantonio/zh-hant/

很久沒聽到/讀到"聽"當量詞,所以翻字典才想起。

量詞。計算罐頭食品的單位。為英語 tin的音譯。如:「一奶粉」。
台灣現在的用法可能偏向"一罐"。

----這篇文章下文的翻譯也很有意思,一般人不易懂"交叉",所以要查字典:(換句話說,可考慮加注)。

cross-sensitization,

n a phenomenon in which a person becomes sensitized to substances different from the substance to which the person is already sensitized.

cross-tolerance,


tolerance to other drugs that develops after exposure to a different agent. An example is the cross-tolerance that develops betweenalcohol and barbiturat
/cross-tol·er·ance/ (kros?tol-er-ans) extension of the tolerance for a substance to others of the same class,even those to which the body has not been exposed previously.


  1. Cross Dependency and Cross Tolerance | Alcohol Rehab

    alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/cross-dependency-cross-tolerance/

    Cross dependency is an associated issue that some addicts may experience where their dependence on a drug can be alleviated by the use of another drug.


 In animal models, sugar produces at least three symptoms consistent with substance abuseand dependence: cravings, tolerance and withdrawal. Other druglike properties of sugar include (but are not limited to) cross-sensitization, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward, opioid effects and other neurochemical changes in the brain.在動物模型中,糖分至少產生了三種與物質濫用和依賴相吻合的癥狀:渴求感、耐受性、戒斷癥狀。糖分其他與毒品相似的特性還包括(但不限於)交叉敏化、交叉耐受性、交叉依賴性、獎賞效應、阿片效應,以及大腦中的其他神經化學變化。


在動物實驗中,動物對糖的感受就像一種毒品,而且可能會對糖產生依賴。一項研究顯示,如果提供了選擇,大鼠在實驗室的環境中會選擇糖而不是可卡因,因為前者的獎賞效應更強,即糖帶來的「興奮感」有着更高的愉悅度。

2014年12月28日 星期日

從"安迪布萊頓" 到"伊妮德·布萊頓":《春滿人間》翻譯偵探



有個翻譯偵探社blog,很有點意思,它告訴我們,許多東方出版社的改寫書,是出自日本;許多文藝翻譯是盜自"匪區"....
我今早也做了一次成功的譯書偵探。月前我寫下:本書原書名和作者原文等,都沒資訊。briton/blyton andy 都找不到
Title 春滿人間
Authors 布萊頓, 李祥亭譯 (39歲,陸軍官校24期.....)
Publisher 立志出版社, 1969
我這回發現"版權頁寫原著者為"安迪布萊頓"。中文版轉由晨光出版社,1983和1991等再版。我找不到andy britton....後來我想,應該翻翻內容來補充資訊。內文有"柳樹農場",於是加入它去Google.....
The Children of Willow Farm, illustrated by Harry Rountree (中文無插圖)1942,作者竟然是20世紀最量產、知名的童書庭主婦(762本,每天寫6000~10000字)作家 Enid Blyton (。有趣的是,Wikipedia中文有她的介紹:
伊妮德·布萊頓(1897年8月11日-1968年11月28日),筆名是瑪麗·波洛克( Mary Pollock),她是英國1940年代的著名兒童文學家,她所著的《諾弟》(Noddy)系列及透過一位叫Noddy的虛構人物為兒童介紹世界各國的新奇事物的系列,在世界都很受歡迎,亦曾成為各地的課室指定讀物。這系列的中譯本都由基督教文藝出版社出版。 她的作品以奇幻冒險類型為主,知名的還包括《五小冒險系列》(The Famous Five,僅部份有中譯本,由水牛出版社出版),與尚未授權中文版的《Five Find─Outers》系列、《The Secret Seven》系列、《Malory Towers》系列等等.....

2014年12月24日 星期三

翻譯日記1987.12.25 《形之合成‧注解》

19871224  周四
北辰 CT/MT。決定究竟回不回東海,與蔡禎騰談。先回台北…….
19871225  周五
六點多起來,無法決定究竟回不回東海。坐失良機…….
整天翻譯《形之合成‧注解》,到黃昏才弄完

同時問爸媽的戰果如何……

http://hcmemory.blogspot.tw/2014/12/12241225-1987.html

【台灣歷史隧道】1987-12-25台北西門町全面癱瘓

2014年12月23日 星期二

kataluma, ... Jesus was not born in a stable, says theologian



Jesus was not born in a stable, says theologian

Rev Ian Paul writes on his blog that birth of Christ story is based on a misreading of the New Testament
A 15th century nativity scene by Paolo Schiavo.
A 15th century nativity scene by Paolo Schiavo. Photograph: Philadelphia Museum of Art/Corbis
The birth of Christ may be the most famous Bible story of all, reprised annually in nativity scenes across the world each Christmas: Jesus was born in a stable, because there was no room at the inn. But evangelical scholar Rev Ian Paul has argued that the entire story may be based on a misreading of the New Testament, reviving an ancient theory that Jesus was not, in fact, born in a stable.
“I am sorry to spoil your preparations for Christmas before the Christmas lights have even gone up,” Rev Paul, a theologian and former Dean of Studies at St John’s theological college, Nottingham, has written on his personal blog. “But Jesus wasn’t born in a stable, and, curiously, the New Testament hardly even hints that this might have been the case.”
Paul argues that the Greek word, kataluma, usually translated as “Inn” was in fact used for a reception room in a private house – the same term is used to describe the “upper room” where Jesus and his disciples ate the last supper. An entirely different word, pandocheion, is used to describe an “Inn” or any other place where strangers are welcomed.
Even if there were an inn in Bethlehem, Paul argues, Joseph and Mary would not have been staying there. The only reason for them to travel to Bethlehem for the census was because he had family there and if he did, the customs of first-century Palestine required him to stay with relatives and not with strangers.
In that context, the kataluma where he stayed would not have been an Inn, but a guest room in the house of the family where Joseph and Mary were staying. That could very well have been full with other relatives who had arrived before them.
“The actual design of Palestinian homes (even to the present day) makes sense of the whole story,” Paul writes. “Most families would live in a single-room house, with a lower compartment for animals to be brought in at night, and either a room at the back for visitors, or space on the roof. The family living area would usually have hollows in the ground, filled with straw, in the living area, where the animals would feed.”
So Jesus would not have been born in a detached stable, but in the lower floor of a peasant house, where the animals were kept.
This interpretation is hardly new. The earliest scholar to put it forward was the Spaniard Francisco Sánchez de las Brozas, in 1584. He was denounced to the inquisition for his pains and reprimanded by them, though not actually burned, tortured or imprisoned as might have happened to heretics.
Since then the theory has repeatedly been raised by New Testament greek scholars aware that kataluma does not actually mean “Inn”. Paul himself first wrote about the misinterpretation of the word in 2013, and re-posted his theory this year “because I have been struck again how often the message of Christmas is summed up as ‘Jesus was born in a stable’, both within and beyond the church.”
For Paul, the significance of his reinterpretation of the story is that it undercuts the idea that what made Jesus remarkable was that he was born to humble, outcast parents. “In the Christmas story, Jesus is not sad and lonely, some distance away in the manger, needing our sympathy. He is in the midst of the family, and all the visiting relations, right in the thick of it and demanding our attention,” he writes.
“This should fundamentally change our approach to enacting and preaching on the nativity.”
Paul says that what is extraordinary about the birth of Jesus is that it shows God shifting from the divine to the human. If that happened in a crowded family home, the message is preserved. If it happened in an isolated stable, “that just shows that the descent was from a respected human to a disrespected human,” he argues.

2014年12月20日 星期六

"帽子戲法"?hat trick; 「香蕉」or 「蘋果」

昔日以為hat trick是變魔術的戲法,稱查網路牛津詞典等,發現此猜測是大錯。應是"快速捷報連連"。


Xinjiang also has the country's largest coal reserves, an estimated 40 percent of the national total, and the largest natural gas reserves. Those three components form an energy hat trick that China is capitalizing on to power its cities and industries.
新疆還擁有中國最大的煤炭儲量——約佔全國總儲量的40%——以及最大的天然氣儲量。這三個要素組成了能源領域的帽子戲法,而中國正在利用它們來為城市和工業的發展提供動力。
http://cn.nytimes.com/china/20141221/c21karamay/dual/


Definition of hat-trick in English:

NOUN

Three successes of the same kind within a limited period, in particular (in soccer) the scoring of three goals in a game by one player or (in cricket) the taking of three wickets by the same bowler with successive balls:he scored a hat-trickCampbell completed a brilliant hat-tricka hat-trick of victories

Origin

late 19th century: originally referring to the club presentation of a new hat (or some equivalent) to a bowler taking three wickets successively.

*****
一切尚在"存疑"階段:

genesis - Where did the notion that Adam and Eve ate an ...

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word apple has, until recently, always meant simply "fruit" in English. This was certainly the case at the time of the earliest English Bible translations in the 1600s.
In Middle English and as late as 17c., it was a generic term for all fruit other than berries but including nuts (e.g. Old English fingeræppla "dates," literally "finger-apples;" Middle English appel of paradis "banana," c.1400). Hence its grafting onto the unnamed "fruit of the forbidden tree" in Genesis.
----

'Banana' unpeels one fruit's political, scientific and cultural ...

www.boston.com › A&E › Books
Banana: The Fate of the Fruit That Changed the WorldBy Dan KoeppelHudson Street, 304 pp., $23.95

------
.......我昨天讀『香蕉密碼』一書,有多重收獲.其一,全世界的香蕉基因都一樣.
其二,香蕉無種子,是無性生殖.古代稱『智慧無花果』.『聖經』上的亞當與夏娃故事中的「蘋果」,其實是「香蕉」.因古代中東不生產蘋果,而且是翻譯錯誤,才成為「蘋果」.......

機械翻譯:Bing 只會將window翻成 視窗;日本"漢字"用語, I feared being marooned amongst buffers and buffoons, bucolics, butties, and Blimps.



A trio of architectural details: window, roof and spires.
三個建築上的細節: 視窗、 屋頂和尖塔。


【電子版編集部(マネー担当)から】
 お金がなかなかたまらない、やりくりが大変という人は多い。そんな働く女性のお悩みを解決すべく、給料や貯蓄を調査し、正社員、契約社員、派遣社員と雇用形態別に集計してみた。その結果、正社員と非正規社員では、金銭面で大きな差が出た。非正規のなかでも、直接雇用である契約社員が派遣社員を月収、年収、貯蓄で上回った。正社員と派遣社員では貯蓄に2倍の開きがあった。大切な給料を生かす方法と、収入をアップさせる方法も紹介する。
◆収入アップのためにできること、雇用形態で貯蓄にも差
http://www.nikkei.com/money/column/jyoshiryoku.aspx?g=DGXMZO7898833028102014000000
Bing 機械翻譯 :很多人的 [電子版本 (電荷的錢) 從編輯器] 錢不可抗拒,很難達到收支平衡。解決煩惱與這樣的女人,並審查薪金和基於聚合到永久雇員的儲蓄合同員工、 臨時雇員和就業形成另一種。其結果是,在定期和非週期性員工出來大的差異,以貨幣計算。中非常規的直接在就業合同雇員每月收入超過了收入和儲蓄。2 x 開放節省的永久和臨時雇員。介紹如何工資是重要的和如何彌補政府收入。

台灣採用許多日本"漢字"用語,所以
正社員、契約社員、派遣社員と雇用形態別
都能了解,不過機械翻譯之後可能越幫越忙,弄不清楚它在說什麼。
******
I feared being marooned amongst buffers and buffoons, bucolics, butties, and Blimps.

The Oxford Book of English Short Stories,Second Edition,edited by A. S. Byatt,, p.xv



Google的機械翻譯:
擔心被放逐之間的緩衝區和小丑,bucolics,butties和飛艇

頭韻當然難翻譯 不過意思可以查字典表達之......(待續)

butty[but・ty]
 

  • 発音記号[bʌ'ti]

[名]
1 ((英略式))仲間, 同僚, 相棒.
2 親方, 監督, 組頭(foreman).
3 ((英略式))サンドイッチ.
 maroon
(mə-rūn') pronunciation
tr.v., -rooned, -roon·ing, -roons.
  1. To put ashore on a deserted island or coast and intentionally abandon.
  2. To abandon or isolate with little hope of ready rescue or escape: The travelers were marooned by the blizzard.

2014年12月19日 星期五

譯人:李達中、鄭至慧



前幾天,朋友吳先生來訪,我將張充和女史(孫康宜編寫)相關的四本書送給他家。
張女士的家族故事,請參考金安平(Annping Chin) 《合肥四姐妹》( Four Sisters of Hofei),鄭至慧譯,台北:時報文化,2005
▼ 譯者簡介 
鄭至慧,文字工作者。譯有《夢迴藻海》、《瓶中美人》、《白色旅店》等書,著有《菜場門口遇見馬》、《她鄉女紀》。 


  1. 她鄉女紀鄭至慧紀念部落格:鄭至慧年表(1950-2009) - 樂多日誌

    blog.roodo.com/zhengzh/archives/10156471.html
    Translate this page
    Oct 1, 2009 - 1950年6月17日生於台北從小在母親郭春梅的私人家庭幼稚園一起隨班就讀,聰明早慧在此已奠定。 1956年直接就讀女師附小...
*****


漱玉譯事:李達中譯; 台北:金湯書局出版社,1984/1993
DSC04124
李達中是我師大附中高三的國文老師。時隔二十年後,約四年前,有回整理書箱時赫見老師於1984年出版寄來的贈書《漱玉譯事》(李達中老師於1946至1960於報章雜誌發表的西洋文學譯作),......

憶李達中老師- 樂多日誌 Sep 28, 2008


D H Lawrence短篇小說數篇












版權頁有另8本譯作


愛的考驗- Paul Ernst, 李達中- Google Books

賽爾薇亞- Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, 李達中- Google Books 台北市:東方1953年

2014年12月16日 星期二

譯人:劉元孝、漢寶德 (待補)


劉元孝老師最了不起的成就,無疑是他創設的忠孝日語,教出約140位日本交流協會留日學生。

忠孝日語hungmj.myweb.hinet.net/Translate this page忠孝日語』系由本班創辦人劉元孝先生於民國68年4月30日所創立的,迄今已有三十餘年歷史,據保守估計受業於忠孝日語的同學,已有二萬餘人之多。 由我們的課程 ...

他還編了一本重要的日漢辭典和:


 
 



2006
劉元孝編著,《古典日文解讀法》,417頁。臺北:中央研究院臺灣史研究所。
作者介紹   JPG
目次   PDF
   PDF






 
主編之專書




2006
劉元孝編著,《古典日文解讀法》,417頁。臺北:中央研究院臺灣史研究所。
作者介紹   JPG
目次   PDF
   PDF

至於他改寫的兒童讀物更不知凡幾:

博客來-作者-劉元孝/改寫


翻譯偵探事務所
〔隱形的日文譯者:宇野浩二〕1962年東方出版社的「西遊記」,內封寫「蘊純」改寫,「寫在前面」的署名者為王蘊純,但1972年第23版的版權頁註明劉元孝改寫。王蘊純查無資料,看來可能是劉元孝(1917- )的筆名。劉元孝是「忠孝日語」補習班的創辦人,台灣人,廣島文理大學肄業,在日本海軍服役,戰後曾擔任蔣經國的日文譯者,後來以教授日文為業,也編日中字典。東方出版社有不少世界名著改寫本都是他的作品。
西遊記是中國名著,明朝吳承恩著,國中國文課本也背過「花果山福地,水簾洞洞天」那一⋯⋯ 更多 (4 張相片)