2012年12月26日 星期三

自由 自由 多少誤會

此新聞中沒英文 所以我先將"自由"翻譯成liberty去找原文
原來是免費的free 請自己取書.....

Larger view
A Little Free Library in Minneapolis on Dec. 25, 2012. The whimsical little boxes were first started by Todd Bol in Hudson, Wis., three years ago and have grown into a global phenomenon since then. (MPR Photo/Hart Van Denburg)

Little Free Library phenomenon started in Hudson, Wis.

December 25, 2012

Associated Press
HUDSON, Wis. (AP) -- It started as a simple tribute to his mother, a teacher and bibliophile. Todd Bol put up a miniature version of a one-room schoolhouse on a post outside his home in this western Wisconsin city, filled it with books and invited his neighbors to borrow them.
They loved it, and began dropping by so often that his lawn became a gathering spot. Then a friend in Madison put out some similar boxes and got the same reaction. More home-crafted libraries began popping up around Wisconsin's capital.
Three years later, the whimsical boxes are a global sensation. They number in the thousands and have spread to at least 36 countries, in a testimonial to the power of a good idea, the simple allure of a book and the wildfire of the internet.
"It's weird to be an international phenomenon," said Bol, a former international business consultant who finds himself at the head of what has become the Little Free Libraries organization. The book-sharing boxes are being adopted by a growing number of groups as a way of promoting literacy in inner cities and underdeveloped countries.
Bol, his Madison friend Rick Brooks, and helpers run the project from a funky workshop with a weathered wood facade in an otherwise nondescript concrete industrial building outside Hudson, a riverside community of 12,000 about 20 miles east of downtown St. Paul, Minn. They build wooden book boxes in a variety of styles, ranging from basic to a miniature British-style phone booth, and offer them for sale on the group's website, which also offers plans for building your own. Sizes vary. The essential traits are that they are eye-catching and protect the books from the weather.
Each little library invites passersby to "take a book, return a book."
Educators in particular have seized on the potential of something so simple and self-sustaining.
In Minneapolis, school officials are aiming to put up about 100 in neighborhoods where many kids don't have books at home. A box at district headquarters goes through 40 books a day, serving children whose parents come to register them and adults who come to prepare for high school equivalency tests.

"I absolutely love them," said Melanie Sanco, the district's point person on the effort. "It sparks the imagination. You see them around and you want one. ... They're cute and adorable." Kids who have books stay in school longer, she said.
Bol and Brooks, who runs outreach programs at the University of Wisconsin, see the potential for a lot more growth. At one point, they set a goal of 2,510 boxes -- surpassing the number of public libraries built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. They passed that mark this summer.
The Rotary Club plans to use the book boxes in its literacy efforts in the west African nation of Ghana. Books for Africa, a Minnesota-based group that has sent over 27 million books to 48 countries since 1988, recently decided to ship books and little libraries to Ghana, too.
The groups are working with Antoinette Ashong, a pro-literacy activist and headmistress of a girls' school in the capital of Accra. "I want to spread reading in Africa, which is a problem because in Africa it is very, very difficult to get books to read," Ashong said in a Skype interview. She has already put up 45 boxes in poor neighborhoods.
Most of the nonprofit's money comes from sale of pre-built little libraries, which cost from $250 to $600, and a $25 fee to register a library on the organization's web site. The AARP Foundation has also provided a $70,000 grant as part of a new program to provide book boxes for seniors and kids to read to them.
Bol and Brooks recently began drawing paychecks after several years of work as volunteers. Bol, the full-time executive director, said he hopes to earn $60,000 a year eventually, but added, "we're not there yet." The group will remain a nonprofit, Bol said, but they want to develop stable revenue streams and management systems so it can continue to grow.
"We are working very hard to get close to making it financially viable, but it will be a while," Brooks said. "What's encouraging is that every day people call us and they have the most clever, interesting and sometimes moving ideas."
Sage Holben, who put up a Little Free Library in her tough neighborhood near downtown St. Paul, said she thinks it has made a positive difference. Although crime and violence are common on the block, no one has vandalized the box or stolen the books, and she routinely sees kids exploring the contents. She said she asked one 8-year-old neighbor if she really intended to read a romance novel she had taken.
The girl told her no, Holben said, but ran her finger over the words as if following the text.
"I do this and I feel like I'm smart," the girl said.


後 來,博爾在威州首府麥迪遜的朋友布魯克斯也在家門口設置類似的圖書箱,同樣獲得廣泛回響。一傳十,十傳百,三年後,這種原本只是異想天開的圖書室,竟然在 全球蔚為風潮,現在已有至少三十六國、共數千個類似圖書箱設置,一些內陸城市以及未開發國家甚至把這種圖書箱作為推廣識字率的方式。

博爾與 布魯克斯在明尼蘇達州的工作室,開始推廣「小小自由圖書館」計畫。他們用木材搭建各式各樣的木箱,有的是基本造型,有的像是縮小版的英國造型電話亭,大小 不同,但外型搶眼,能保護書籍抵禦天氣侵襲是共同特色。接著他們在網路上販售木箱,並提供自行搭建「小小自由圖書館」的建議。


意外成為「小小自由圖書館」組織領袖的博爾說:「圖書箱造成國際轟動實在很奇怪。」他認為此項計畫還很有發展的潛力,有一度他訂定廣設2510個圖書箱的目 標,今年夏天他已在慈善家卡內基的協助下達成,原本只是義務幫忙性質的博爾與布魯克斯最近也開始收到酬勞。博爾說,組織會維持非營利性質,不過他希望有些 營利,才能讓組織持續成長。

2012年12月18日 星期二


Umberto Eco艾可談文學》( Sulla letteratura) 翁德明 譯

艾可談文學‧互文反諷以及閱讀層次》台北: 皇冠文化出版 2008

「這個指涉(當然是有意的)是英譯者插進去的,老實說,英譯本的確包含這個回響,這點意味著,翻譯不只能改變互文性反諷的遊戲而且還能使它豐富。」On Literature by Umberto Eco艾可談文學273



胡適日記全集 5: 1928-1929
708等為胡適為教育部擬的高級中學國文課程標準第二稿」,很可參考。今只記「五‧教法要點‧(3) 練習作文‧(1) 翻譯 最可以訓練精確的作文技術。」
B. 翻譯今語文為古語文
C. 翻譯古韻文為今語的散文或韻文
.D. 翻譯外國短篇為中國古今體文字

2012年12月16日 星期日

Essay on the Principles of Translation (London, 1790)

2010中國出版二本從英文翻譯過來的韋伯選集 馬克斯韋伯社會論文集  北京: 人民出版社2010  這是From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Edited by H. H.Gerth and C. Wright Mills , 1948/1991---1948 年版的英譯者前言就提出A. F. Tyler 的見解: Essay on the Principles of Translation (London, 1790)
---Mills 等論述他們主要追求信達

Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (15 October 1747 – 5 January 1813) was a Scottish lawyer, writer, and professor. Tytler was also a historian, and for some years was Professor of Universal History, and Greek and Roman Antiquities, in the University of Edinburgh.[1]
Tytler's other titles included Senator of the College of Justice, and George Commissioner of Justiciary in Scotland.[2] Tytler was a friend of Robert Burns, and prevailed upon him to remove lines from his poem "Tam o' Shanter" which were insulting to the legal and clerical professions.[3] His son was Patrick Fraser Tytler, traveller and historian.



Tytler wrote a treatise that is important in the history of translation theory, the Essay on the Principles of Translation (London, 1790). It has been argued in a 1975 book by Gan Kechao that Yan Fu's famous translator's dictum of fidelity, clarity and elegance came from Tytler.
Tytler said that translation should fully represent the 1) ideas and 2) style of the original and should 3) possess the ease of original composition.

2012年12月9日 星期日

一次覺醒: 李玉民《紀德文集‧日記卷》廣東:花城,2002,

一次覺醒: 這幾年有幾次動念翻譯:Journals 1889-1949 (André Gide):   詹宏志有一小本漢譯本(台北遠景) 也是有英文本的刪節. 前天拿到  李玉民《紀德文集‧日記卷》廣東:花城,2002,513頁  選集1888-1909,法國文學等注解不錯----今天比較英譯  發現英文本也刪掉許多
李是法國文學專家 (當然Gide很博學  李的英國文學的注解就很弱) 他說不定採全譯
這是翻譯最好不要重譯  不要假內行的一例
Journals 1889-1949 (André Gide)/Henri Frédéric Ami...

Put thousand together less bad,

A.《紅與黑》黎烈文譯 台北:文壇出版社 1965
此書收入桂冠的世界文學名著10 1994
B.《紅與黑》羅新璋譯 ,濟南:山東藝文出版社,1997
C.《紅與黑》郝運譯 上海:譯文出版社,2001之

翻譯討論: 由於筆者不懂法文 基本上 無法置喙 不過我們可以用第一章的章訓之翻譯來比較
 Put thousand together less bad, 
But the cage less gay.

 "Not only did Hobbes never say any such thing, but this English quotation is [...] as senseless to native speakers of English as to those who know no English at all. Put thousands of what together? [T]he epigraph [...] conveys no meaning except what its readers create for it."
(Realism and revolution, Sandy Petrey)
的確作者開個玩笑    不過B.的翻譯最有文彩  卻是最不清楚....

2012年12月8日 星期六


《提堂》(BRING UP THE BODIES)希拉里·曼特爾(Hilary Mantel)著。A John Macrae Book/ Henry Holt & Company出版,28美元。
本書從曼特爾上一部小說《狼廳》(Wolf Hall)結束的地方開始寫起,為亨利八世與安妮·博林(Anne Boleyn)看似古老的故事賦予了全新的魅力與懸疑色彩。故事以亨利國王的首席國務大臣托馬斯·克倫威爾(Thomas Cromwell)的視角展開,宮廷中冷酷無情的權術鬥爭很快發展為不可避免的死刑。這部小說和《狼廳》都榮獲了布克獎(Man Booker Prize)。這個三部曲系列即將推出最終卷,克倫威爾將在其中迎來自己的死亡,它會不會為曼特爾帶來第三個布克獎呢?http://cn.nytimes.com/article/culture-arts/2012/12/04/c04bestbooks/zh-hk/

 我們要問: 書名的翻譯恰到好處嗎?

提堂 (Mention Hearing)
提堂為刑事案件交予法庭處理的第一步,如控方已完備控罪書 (Charge Sheet) 及案情最要 (Summary of Facts),便會要求法庭聽取答辯 (Take Plea),即詢問會告人會否認罪。如認罪,法庭在聽取律師的求情陳詞後便會考慮判刑。如不認罪法官便會另定一較後日子以便進行審訊,此時法庭便要考慮是否給予被告人保釋。律師便會向法庭陳述保釋的理據及可接受的保釋條件,來給法庭考慮。基於法庭程序複雜及難明,此時最好聘有律師,代表答辯及申請保釋。 如有律師陪同,便能更進一步得到保障。http://www.crime.hk/crime-bail.htm

When any case comes before the Crown Court the first (meaningful) hearing is known as the Pleas and Case Management Hearing. If a defendant pleads 'guilty' then the matter will proceed to a sentence hearing. If 'not guilty' then a trial will need to be held and therefore various 'directions' are given by the judge for both sides to complete any necessary work before the trial date, which can often be set at this time. The aim of these hearings is to try and eliminate the need for any further court hearings before the trial is heard - however, things don't always go to plan....

You don't mention whether you're being asked to attend as a witness or a defendant - which could mean different things depending on which but....

In both cases the use of a 'mention hearing' can be to deal with all manner of things which could include (though not an exhaustive list) any outstanding issues of prosecution evidence disclosure, unexpected witness availability difficulties, having to change a trial date and/or venue, preliminary arguments over issues of law or admissability of evidence (if before the nominated trial judge): either the court, prosecution or defence can ask for a case to be listed 'for mention' if matters cannot be resolved administratively and a judge is needed to make decisions in relation to a forthcoming trial.--http://uk.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090417001347AAe8Y1w

2012年12月5日 星期三


---Edgar MORIN《方法:天然之天性La Methode. Tome1: la nature de lature, 19802版》北京大學出版社,2002,頁52

關於辜鴻銘的Wikipedia 翻譯之討論


英國作家毛姆來 中國,想見辜。招待毛姆的主人就給辜送去一張便條紙,請他來。可是等了好幾天也不見辜來。毛姆後來知道這位主人是以如此不禮貌的方式邀請辜,就自己寫了一 封非常謙遜的信交送,詢問是否可去拜訪。兩小時後,辜就回信答應。一進屋,辜就強力表達他對之前那張便條紙邀請的不滿:
當那哲學家進客廳來時,我即迅速表示我對他容許我拜會他的謝意。他指給我一張椅子,幫我倒茶。 「你想見我對我是一種奉承,」他回答,「你的國人只和苦力及買辦交易,他們以為每一個中國人如果不是這一種,就一定是那一種。」我想冒險抗議,但我尚未了 解他的真意。他把背倚在椅子上,用一種嘲弄的表情望著我。「他們以為若他們已經點頭示意,我們就一定會去。」我知道他仍然對我朋友不合宜的通知感到不滿。 我不知道應怎樣回答,喃喃地說了一些恭維話。**
(林語堂,信仰之旅 From Pagan to Christian,第二章 大旅行*的開始)

The Grand Detour Begins  大旅行讓人誤以為是grand tour
** 此段文字拙劣又不知所云云


此段也不好...... ***獨裁多用在政治上   如果此處是dictator  或可翻譯為"好下指令者"....

South Korea, Japan and Taiwan

  South Korea, Japan and Taiwan=等地區?
Breaking Down Communication Barriers
When YouTube kicked off as a video-sharing site in 2005, it spawned a new era of video watching that tore down many of the geographic and commercial barriers that had existed in traditional media markets. But despite the platform's ground-breaking nature, language still remains the biggest obstacle preventing non-English-language content from reaching untapped audiences.

Along with the thousands of hours of viral amateur footage that made celebrities out of anyone with a $100 digital camera, the platform also gave Web users a glimpse into the world of content from obscure television markets that had previously remained siloed by their small broadcast reach.

From Uzbek music videos to Korean drama serials to television commercials not seen since they last aired in the 1970s, the depth of the Internet's storage capacity means there is no content too fringe and no fanbase too small to find a place in the online video marketplace.

For all the ways the Internet has been able to increase productivity across national borders, however, content is still highly fragmented along linguistic lines. Throughout moving picture's modern history, content traffic between different language markets has been anything but multidirectional: While English-language content predominantly from the major U.S. production houses has a truly global reach through both subtitled and dubbed forms, so-called 'foreign' content subtitled or dubbed in English is still widely seen as niche-market stuff, despite the increasingly multilingual nature of a market such as the U.S.

And while YouTube caters to a large range of language markets, the appetite for local-language content has given rise to language- and country-specific video-hosting sites such as Youku in China, Rutube in Russia and the Iranian-focused Vidoosh.

Much less common, however, are direct translations between smaller and geographically distant language markets─Croatian to Malay, for example. Underlying this is not just a lack of distribution infrastructure linking such markets (translation being a key piece) but also a dominant assumption that there is unlikely to be an appetite for such exchanges.

Viki, a Singapore-based Internet start-up and one of 12 finalists in The Wall Street Journal's Asian Innovation Awards, is challenging that assumption. It has developed a video-hosting service that is supported by a community of subtitlers that translate television and movie clips into some 160 languages.

Razmig Hovaghimian, the 37-year-old founder of Viki, describes the site as 'Hulu for the rest of us,' given its focus on bringing non-English-language television productions out of their traditional markets.

'Right now, there's a wedge between fans and the content,' Mr. Hovaghimian says. 'I want to remove that wedge because the content is trapped there.'

The site has more than 1,000 titles─movies, television programs and music videos─and the most popular content originates from markets like South Korea, Japan and Taiwan.

For example, 'Playful Kiss,' a Korean television series, has translated subtitles in 56 languages, including Tagalog, Estonian and Greek.

And while the most widely spoken languages unsurprisingly account for most of Viki's translated subtitle words─about 250 million words at present─Romanian and Turkish have made an unexpected entrance into the top 10 'translated-into' languages, showing the surprising reach of the platform.

Viki originally was funded by Neoteny Labs, a Singapore-focused start-up fund headed by venture capitalists Joichi Ito, an early investor in Twitter, and Reid Hoffman, the co-founder and executive chairman of LinkedIn.

The website last year received a second round of funding from its original investor base and new investors BBC Worldwide─the British broadcaster's commercial arm─and SK Telecom Co.'s mobile spinoff SK Planet. It drew about 14 million unique views in August but having just launched a 'behind-the-firewall' service on Chinese social networking site RenRen, this number is expected to increase.

Mr. Ito believes Viki can both lower the costs of marketing and distribution of content and help content owners target frontier markets with much more granular information about audiences than is currently available.

'I think that high-quality content creates platforms for communities that become local advocates for new cultural interactions,' he says.

While Japanese and more recently Korean artists have established impressive followings outside their own language markets, Mr. Ito sees potential for other emerging cultures to also build bridges to new audiences as production values improve. 'In particular, I'm interested in Arab, Latin American and Indian content right now,' he says.

Viki:沖破語言藩籬 享受無邊視界





雖 然網絡有種種方法可以跨越國界提高生產力﹐但節目內容仍然因為語言的緣故而高度分散。從電影發展的現代歷史看﹐不同語種市場之間的內容從來就不是多向流動 的。雖然來自美國主要影視製作機構的英語節目內容通過添加字幕和配音的方式能夠做到在全球播出﹐但那些添加英文字幕或英文配音的外國節目內容仍然被普遍視 作利基市場──雖然美國等市場多語種程度越來越高。




Viki的創始人霍瓦吉米安(Razmig Hovaghimian)現年37歲﹐他將這個網站稱作“其他人的Hulu”﹐因為該網站專注於讓非英語電視節目走出傳統市場。



例如﹐韓國電視劇《惡作劇之吻》(Playful Kiss)已經被翻譯成56種語言﹐包括塔加拉語、愛沙尼亞語和希臘語。


Viki 最初的投資方是Neoteny Labs。Neoteny Labs是一家專門在新加坡投資的初創基金﹐由風險投資人伊籐穰一(Joichi Ito)和霍夫曼(Reid Hoffman)負責管理。伊籐穰一是推特(Twitter)的早期投資人﹐而霍夫曼是LinkedIn的聯合創始人兼執行董事長。

去年 ﹐Viki獲得了第二輪融資﹐投資方除了第一輪的投資者還有一些新的投資者﹐包括英國廣播公司(BBC)的商業分支機構BBC Worldwide和SK電訊(SK Telecom Co. Ltd.)的移動業務子公司SK Planet。 該網站8月份的獨立訪問者數量達到了1,400萬﹐鑒於Viki剛剛在中國社交網站人人網發佈了專屬專區﹐預計這個數字還會增長。




2012年12月3日 星期一


胡適日記全集, 第 6卷 1930-33
1930.9.30   pp.284-86