2007年8月30日 星期四

為什麼日本古典名著的譯注相當重要:『浮世澡堂』為例

為什麼日本古典名著的譯注相當重要:『浮世澡堂』為例

中菜英譯

中文菜單英譯 官方初定2753條

一 份由北京市旅遊局等機構發出的「中文菜名英文譯法」討論稿,30日已完成意見徵集,初步確定了2753條菜單及酒水的英文譯法,將於近期公布,並在全國飯 店推廣使用。其中「童子雞」不再被譯為「沒有性生活的雞」(Chicken Without Sexual Life),「紅燒獅子頭」也不再被譯為「燒紅了的獅子頭」(Red-Burned Lion Head)。不過有的譯法,外國遊客仍表示「看不懂」。

北京市外辦和北京市旅遊局去年3月起著手中文菜單英文譯法的規範工作,經過北京聯合大學旅遊學院專家及顧問審核後,形成了最新的「中文菜單英文譯法」討論稿。翻譯委員會由20名志願者組成,其中有英語教授、餐飲業經理及多數來自美國的「外國專家」。

據新聞晚報報導,專家們對2753種菜名進行了整理。首先是中國菜中以主料開頭的菜名歸為一類,比如「白靈菇扣鴨掌」就直接採用蘑菇和鴨腳,中間以連詞連接;「冰梅涼瓜」則直接翻譯菜色的主要配料苦瓜和楊梅汁,再用連詞連接。

其次,一些中國菜名以烹製方法開頭,比如燉、溜、燴、水煮等,這些菜名則主要採用烹製方法的相應動詞,再加上菜肴採用的主料來表示。比如「地瓜燒肉」便用 「被爛熟的地瓜和肉丁」(Stewed Diced Pork and Sweet Pota-toes)來表示;「水煮魚」則譯為「熱辣油裡的魚片」(Fish Filets in Hot Chili Oil)。

第三類是以口感開頭的菜名,這一類的菜則以介紹菜肴形狀或口感以及主配料為原則,並進行合理想像。比如「脆皮雞」譯為「脆雞肉」(Crispy Chick-en)。

最後一類是以人名或地名命名的菜肴,這類直接以菜肴的創始人或發源地的拼音加主料來表示。比如「麻婆豆腐」是直接將「麻婆」和「豆腐」的漢語拼音組合成英文菜名Mapo Tofu;「廣東點心」則採用廣東地名加英文單詞點心來翻譯。

報導說,「童子雞」已正式跟「沒有性生活的雞」告別,而改成了「春雞」 (Spring Chichen);「叫化雞」則被規定為「乞丐雞」(Beggars Chicken);「田園素小炒」被譯為「素食者喜愛的菜」(Vegetarian's Delight)。

對於一些中文菜名用英文是表達不了的,比如「餛飩」有些地方也叫「雲吞」,中文字面意思是「吞下雲彩」的意思,常見的「魚香肉絲」是該翻譯成「有魚香味的 肉片」,還是「用蒜味佐料做的豬肉條」?還是乾脆就叫「川味肉片」呢?討論稿中也有規定,具有中國特色的且也被外國人接受的傳統食品,本著推廣漢語及中國 文化的原則,全部使用漢語拼音。這樣的菜名有「餛飩」、「佛跳牆」、「鍋貼」、「窩頭」、「蒸餃」、「油條」、「湯圓」、「粽子」等。上述譯名顯然大量參 照了海外中餐館約定俗成的譯法。

在徵求意見時,一些「中國通」對部分菜名的英譯提出了意見,有人說,「叫化雞」翻成「乞丐雞」看著不舒服;有人說,「水煮魚」翻譯得最貼切;有人說,把 「童子雞」叫作「春天的小雞」,還是讓人覺得莫名其妙。也有人提出,菜名中還是應該寫清楚使用的材料,像「田園素小炒」(素食主義者喜歡的),大概能猜出 是一些素菜,要是能寫清楚具體是什麼菜就更好。

2007年8月28日 星期二

譯業 (Tony)



我今天發現,對於有「譯業」的,可以用譯文祝他"退修"

A festschrift was published in his honor in 1997 by the University of Michigan Center for Japanese Studies (Studies in Modern Japanese Literature: Essays and Translations in Honor of Edwin McClellan, eds. Alan Tansman and Dennis Washburn).

Ref. Stephen F. Mason『自然科學發展史』陳譯,台北:廣文出版 ,【出版約30年後,台灣某大學圖書館資料www.lib.nhlue.edu.tw/Reader_service/04哲學 竟然是1998年版 …..

我或許應該翻譯 With Recollections and Reflections by Robert K. Merton” (1988) in The History of Science and the New Humanism (1962) by George Sarton ( 這位著名的科技史家是趙元任先生的老師趙先生的早期留美回憶錄中提到,Sarton在哈佛大學草創時的授課情形。

2007年8月22日 星期三

cadence

cadence (VOICE) Show phonetics
noun [C] 節奏 抑揚頓挫
the regular rise and fall of the voice

cadence (MUSIC)
noun [C] SPECIALIZED
a set of chords (= different notes played together) at the end of a piece of music

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)


"毛姆似有先見之明,下面一段,起首一句,便切中時弊:

Anything is better than not to write clearly. There is nothing to be said against lucidity, and against simplicity only the possibility of dryness. This is a risk that is well worth taking when you reflect how much better it is to be bald than to wear a curly wig. But there is in euphony a danger that must be considered. It is very likely to be monotonous. I do not know how one can guard against this. I suppose the best chance is to have a more lively faculty of boredom than one's readers so that one is wearied before they are. One must always be on the watch for mannerisms and when certain cadences come too easily to the pen ask oneself whether they have not become mechanical.

怎麼寫都比寫得不清不楚為佳。明朗是沒有什麼好反對的,簡潔亦然,但也可能導致枯燥。不過這個險是值得冒的,想想看光著頭可比戴上捲捲的假髮要好多了。還 有一項危險一定要注意,那就是音韻流暢。流暢多半會成了單調。我不知道如何防範這一點。我想最理想的情況是對無聊有一份比讀者還強的敏銳感,在讀者還沒有 感覺無聊之前,先知先覺。千萬要時時提防套式主義,當特定的慣性寫法自筆下一滑而出,就要提醒自己,這會不會變得機械習套了。"

文章之道 貫西東 (下)

say when

' Say when?'
'Thanks. Most awfully, most awfully
''要多少?'
'多謝--足夠了ㄅ足夠了'

Maurice by E. M. Forster ,p.40
said when you are pouring a drink for someone and you want them to tell you when to stop pouring

awful (VERY GREAT)
adjective [before noun]
very great:
I don't know an awful lot (= very much) about art, but I'm learning.
Fortunately it won't make an awful lot of difference if I don't pass the test.
It was an awful risk to take.
awfully
adverb (US INFORMAL ALSO awful)
very or extremely, when used before an adjective or adverb:
It's an awfully long time since we last saw each other.
I'm awfully sorry, but we've forgotten to reserve you a table.


(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

SAY WHEN  

 "Say when."という言い方がどんな状況で使われるか、おわかりだろうか? これはある決まった状況でしか用いられない。誰かに飲み物を注ぐときだけ使われ る。相手に飲み物を注ぐときに、「飲みたい量まで注いだら、それで結構と言ってください」という意味で用いられる。

○Practical Example

 "Here's the mineral water, Mary. I'll pour if for you. Say when."

  「メアリー、ほら、ミネラルウォーターだよ。注いであげるから、それでいいというところになったら言ってね」

2007年8月21日 星期二

譯注誤失

譯注有誤的情形並非不常見



Maurice by E. M. Forest 第五章 這章記劍橋大學某學監(dean) 宴三位學生時的鬥嘴
相當困難
現在指出一些可討論處


"Spect Mr Risley isn't. I've put him off with my low talk."
Spect 一般字典沒有
它是 non-standard 用法 或意為 "expect"
文先生 翻譯為 "我猜想....."


譯注似乎有誤
...or any Hell as bitter as Coventry.


正確應是

Cov·en·try2 (kŭv'ən-trē) pronunciation
n.

A state of ostracism or exile: “It's not that smoke-filled rooms are back; smokers huddle in Coventry these days” (Flora Lewis).

[After COVENTRY1, England (possibly from the sending of Royalist prisoners there during the English Civil War).]



n. - 考文垂, 受排斥的狀態, 放逐

idioms:

  • send someone to coventry 拒絕與某人交往


另外一種情況是翻譯注解跳過前面的而只注後來的

譬如說第7章注劍橋大學的"term"學期制
這字早就出現過

另外一種情況是有的有注 有的沒注
不知取捨如何
尤其這本小說完全不附外文

it was not the thing

Silver Ring Thing 2004-2007


He dared not be kind - it was not the thing - still less to express his admiration in words.
Maurice by E. M. Forster, p.27
墨瑞斯不敢對他表示友好--那可是有失體面的--更不可能醟用語言表達欽佩之清

文潔若 p.19

Dr. Barry...but he had done nothing - it was not the thing.
Maurice by E. M. Forster, p.29
他什麼也沒做--沒把這個當回事.....

文潔若 p.21




thing
  1. Informal. A persistent illogical feeling, as a desire or an aversion; an obsession: has a thing about seafood.
  2. Informal. The latest fad or fashion; the rage: Drag racing was the thing then.
  3. Slang. An activity uniquely suitable and satisfying to one: Let him do his own thing.

2007年8月16日 星期四

She was the single artificer of the world


artifice
noun [C or U] FORMAL

ruse: a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)

trickery or craft, skill, ingenuity
n.技巧;詭計




━━ n. 策略; 謀略; 技巧, くふう (device).
ar・tif・i・cer
 ━━ n. 技術家; 【英陸海軍】技術兵; 名工; 職人; 製作者.
三省堂提供「EXCEED 英和辞典



(the use of) a clever trick or something intended to deceive:
Amazingly for Hollywood, she seems almost entirely without artifice.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)



She was the single artificer of the world
In which she sang. And when she sang, the sea,
Whatever self it had, became the self
That was her song, for she was the maker Then we
...


這是 J. Hillis Miller 的 {跨越邊界: 翻譯 文學 批評} 台北: 書林 1995 頁103
({地誌的倫理:論 Wallace Stevens的 "The idea of the Oder at Key West"}The Ethics of Topography: Stevens's
"The idea of the Oder at Key West"

原書將 artificer翻譯成"設計者" 似乎太廣幻

前人講"巧匠" (又說maker)
"設計者" 便變成需要注解的特別用語





2007年8月14日 星期二

being the catalyst

居間

I find it hard to put into words what we feel for all the work the National Taiwan University Library has done on this documentary film. We also wish to thank Mr. Lin for being the catalyst that brought this all about.

我們實在找不到適切的言語來表達我們對於臺灣大學圖書館製作這一部歷史紀錄片的感激。我們也再一次謝謝林炳炎先生的居間,今天的這一切才有可能發生。

catalyst
noun [C]
1 SPECIALIZED something that makes a chemical reaction happen more quickly without itself being changed

2 an event or person that causes great change:
The high suicide rate acted as a catalyst for change in the prison system.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

catalyst 或許"促成此一美事之大恩人"......

2007年8月13日 星期一

A Murder of Quality.

A Murder of Quality.

台灣譯:優質殺手

GEORGE SMILEY NOVELS; 「高貴なる殺人」: 宇野利泰訳 ハヤカワ・ノヴェルズ 1966: 宇野利泰訳 ハヤカワ文庫NV 1979; 「高貴なる殺人」A Murder of Quality, 1991(): 監督:ギャビン・ミラー ...

. A Murder of Quality · A Murder of Quality Coronet Books John Le Carre

George Smiley is called by his old friend Miss Brimley, who works in a magazine, to try to investigate a death menace letter sent by a reader who says the husband is trying to kill her. Unfortunately, the reader is killed and Smiley doesn't see any other way but to discover the killer. Going to the place where the crime occurred, the famous Carne College, he meets different kinds of people that live in the high society. At every step he takes in the way to the truth, he realizes that were many possible reasons for the murder, and the number of suspects only seems to get bigger.

Le Carré denied that Carne was based on any particular school: "There are probably a dozen great schools of whom it will be confidently asserted that Carne is their deliberate image. But he who looks among their common rooms for the D'Arcys, Fieldings and Hechts will search in vain." [1]

quality

  1. · High social position.
  2. Those in a high social position.

━━ n. , 性質, 特質, 品質; 良質, 優秀; 名門, 上流, 高い身分, (高い)社会的地位; the ~) 上流社会(の人; 音質, 音色; the qualities 高級紙 ((米国のthe New York Times や英国のthe Timesなど)).

殺人

殺手killer murderer

2007年8月8日 星期三

"検証" 非"價值分析"

DATE 2007/08/09

這"價值分析"*是"專用名詞"*
而且在談的是專利是否侵犯之事實的認定和確認

■日文原文
【続報】Samsungは逆提訴も検討,シャープが侵害を訴えた特許の価値を検証する
必須了解日文

けんしょう 検証

verification; an inspection ((of the scene of a crime)).
~する verify; inspect.


けんしょう 0 【検証】

(名)スル
(1)真偽を確かめること。事実を確認・証明すること。
「誤りがないかどうか―する」
(2)裁判官などが推理・推測などによらず、直接にものの形状、現場の状況などを調べて証拠資料を得ること。
「―調書」
書証
(3) 〔論〕〔verification〕判断・命題の真偽を実地に確かめること。特に科学では、ある仮説から論理的に導出される結論を、実験や観察の結果と照 合し、当の仮説の真偽を確かめること。論理実証主義においては、ある命題が観察命題の集合から論理的に演繹可能であることをいう。

三省堂提供「大辞林 第二版」よ




*Lawrence Miles ( -1986) Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering

VA/VE 價值分析與價值工程(value analysis/engineering --可讀中文版本). 用以簡化產品組成及製造流程以降低成本或提高價值之分析方法. 本產品/服務提供顧客什麼價值; 本產品/服務的成本; 使用何種零件/材料/製作方式/製作工具?對上述兩項問題的影響? .

価値(Value) = 機能(Function) / コスト(Cost)

Lawrence Miles ( -1986) Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering 1961/1972第二版/1989

價值分析與價值工程 林大介譯. 台北市:協志工業叢書,1982 (根據 1972版)

他的遺孀將這本書的第三版(1989))全數掃描:

Lawrence D. Miles Value Engineering Reference Center: Wendt Library

2007年8月7日 星期二

We're kinder side-tracked here now,

這句有意思

我先將資料傳上

看有沒人要接下來談


"We're kinder side-tracked here now," he added, "but there was considerable passing before the railroad was carried through to the Flats."

「現在人們都不打從這兒過了,」他接著說,「但火車通過弗來茲以前,這條路是很熱鬧的。」

「如今這個地方是背了時了,」他接著又說,「在鐵路沒有通考白里場之前,這還是個大路呢。」


side·track (sīd'trăk') pronunciation

v., -tracked, -track·ing, -tracks. v.tr.
  1. To divert from a main issue or course: I was sidetracked from my work by an unexpected visitor.
  2. To delay or block the progress of deliberately: “a bill that would sidetrack food irradiation in this country” (Alexis Beck).
  3. To switch from a main railroad track to a siding.
v.intr.
  1. To deviate from a main issue or course.
  2. To run into a siding.
n.

A railroad siding.

v. tr. - 將轉到側線, 拖延, 轉變, 推遲
v. intr. - 轉到側線, 轉變話題
n. - 旁軌, 次要地位, 側線

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 側線, 脱線
v. - わき道にそらす, 脱線させる, 側線へ入れる



2007年8月6日 星期一

我將droning和clue 和 vision等我認為比較恰當的用黑體字標示

Frome stamped on the worn oil-cloth to shake the snow from his boots, and set down his lantern on a kitchen chair which was the only piece of furniture in the hall. Then he opened the door.

"Come in," he said; and as he spoke the droning voice grew still...

王鎮國譯:「請進,」他說。他一開口,裡面那個沒精打采的聲音就逐漸消失了……..

呂叔湘譯「請進,」他說;他一開口,那嗡嗡的聲音就停止了。

It was that night that I found the clue to Ethan Frome, and began to put together this vision of his story.

那天晚上,我找到了伊丹·傅羅姆 一生的關鍵所在,同時開始用想像開始編織這個故事…….

就在那一晚,我找著了了解伊坦·弗洛美的線索,開始給他的故事組織起來…….


我將droning和clue 和 vision等我認為比較恰當的用黑體字標示




His glassy essence, like an angry ape,

AUTHOR:William Shakespeare (1564–1616) QUOTATION:

But man, proud man,
Drest in a little brief authority,
Most ignorant of what he ’s most assured,
His glassy essence, like an angry ape,
Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven
As make the angels weep.
As make the angels weep; who, with our spleens,
Would all themselves laugh mortal.

ATTRIBUTION:Measure for Measure. Act ii. Sc. 2. [text]

可是驕傲的世人掌握到暫時的權力, 卻會忘記了自己琉璃易脆的本來面目, 像一頭盛怒的獅子一樣, 裝扮出醜陋的怪相, 使天上的神明因為憐憫他們的癡愚而流淚; 其實諸神的脾氣如果和我們一樣, 他們笑也會笑死的。【朱生豪




但是人,驕傲的人,一旦有權在手, 便立刻不顧他自己明明知道的脆弱的本質, 像是發怒的猴子般, 當著上天扮演出離奇的把戲, 使得天使都要流淚; 如果他們也有我們這樣的情感, 他們會笑得要死哩。【梁實秋

HC案:glassy essence 另外一解是不確定(Shakespeare's WORDS by David Crystal & B. Crystal可能指三位一體之”玻璃般本質”(Richard Rorty等哲學家))

APE 當然是"猴",朱先生可能次知道馬戲團等等的風行和猴性。

2007年8月4日 星期六

” bead-work”漏譯

呂叔湘先生的翻譯本中文多妙解(譬如說將在郵局等候waited)發信翻譯成伺候;我學到木強”…….),不過如上bay例,不夠具體。這可以又從本書末段:

She took off her spectacles again, leaned toward me across the bead-work table-cover, and went on with lowered voice: "There was one day, about a week after the accident, when they all thought Mattie couldn't live...

” bead-work”漏譯了。

這可能是當初並未想到出版"對照翻譯"本.....

王鎮國先生的翻譯本中規中矩,少掉字。上句翻譯成綴有小珠的桌布。

2007年8月3日 星期五

馬的學問多

If you know Starkfield, Massachusetts, you know the post-office. If you know the post-office you must have seen Ethan Frome drive up to

it, drop the reins on his hollow-backed bay and drag himself across the brick pavement to the white colonnade: and you must have asked

who he was.

呂叔湘:

您要是到過馬薩諸塞州的史撘克菲爾鎮,你準認得那個郵局。您認得那個郵局,您準看過伊坦弗洛美姆趕輛車子來到這兒,把繮繩往他的瘦馬的背上一撘,拖著腳步過磚頭的人行道,走進郵局門口的白石柱子,而且您準要問人這是誰。

王鎮國:倘若你熟悉馬薩諸塞州的史撘克菲,你準知道那兒的郵局。倘若你知道這所郵局,你一定看到過伊丹傅羅姆趕馬車來,他把韁繩往那匹枯瘦的栗色馬身上一丟,就拖曳著腳步,穿過磚砌的人行道,拐進了白色的柱廊。你一定探問過,他是什麼人。

枝節問題與討論:

查詢的結果如下:找不到符合的詞彙!【繮繩 vs 韁繩 我查了(辭海),原來兩者通用:馬紲也--{說文}稱:牛曰紖、犬曰紲、馬曰繮。……(辭海)矛盾,或者「馬紲」也是通稱了;它在「紲」無引此{說文}…..

我發現中文似乎無法表達冒號。【我的朋友瑞麟的意見為:「關於句中的冒號,我個人認為那只是用來表示and you must have asked who he was和句中其他(前面)的部分是分開的而已。所以可用句號或分號表達。」】

馬(bay horse)的「翻譯」問題:「瘦馬」都可能了解錯誤;bay王鎮國還譯出顏色(部分對,詳下文)而呂則含混過去:

bay A reddish-brown animal, especially a horse having a black mane and tail.

日本比較統一:鹿毛の馬

かげかすげ 3 鹿毛糟毛】

ウマの毛色の名。鹿毛に白の差し毛があるもの。 体全体が赤褐色で、たて髪、尾、足の下部は黒色。黒みの具合で黒鹿毛、青鹿毛がいる。www.banei-keiba.or.jp/information/how-brood.html

さしげ 2 0 【差()/()毛】

(1)動物の毛で、全体の部分と違った色の毛が交じっていること。また、そのような毛や動物。
(2)
(かぶと)や帽子などに挿した羽毛。

Concise Oxford Dictionary10版,用 “bay “當測試,大概是 brown horse with black points. point 一義指馬或貓之諸端部extremities 即指臉部、尾部、蹄部等等。回還查9/e,為 a bay horse with a black mane and tail.

hollow-backed 問題

建築: Said of a piece of wood, stone, etc., whose unexposed face has been hollowed out so that it fits against an irregular surface more tightly.

Concise Oxford Dictionary它沒有hollow-backe解釋,不過 hollow之一解為 concave

hollowware 深い食器類 ((ボウル, 深皿, カップなど)).

2007年8月1日 星期三

“Sparrow”by Saadi Youssef: 傅先生的了解能力是值得懷疑的

Iraqi Poet Saadi Youssef's New "Selected Poems" Shines in Khaled Mattawa's English Translation

By Sholeh Wolpé

Without An Alphabet, Without A face: Selected Poems of Saadi Youssef
Translated from the Arabic by Khaled Mattawa
[Graywolf Press 2005]

Bad translation can kill even the best of poems. A brilliant melodic poem rendered into another language could become a bad poem with interesting philosophy or insights.

Fortunately, Saadi Youssef’s Without an Alphabet, Without a Face meets no such fate. It is the work of a master Iraqi poet translated by a master translator. As I recited each poem out loud, which is my test of a good translation, the poems were soft in my throat, smooth as warm milk and honey. They were melodic and not forced. In reading these poems one forgets they are translations and not the poems in their original language....


和平的麻雀 伊拉克詩人優賽福【聯合報╱傅正明2007.08.02】或許也是穿鑿附會的作品。

我稱為「和平的麻雀」的這位詩人薩迪‧優賽福(Saadi Youssef, 1934-),十七歲開始寫作,詩文著作頗豐,由Khaled Mattawa譯為英文的詩集《沒有字母表沒有面貌:優賽福詩選》(Without An Alphabet, Without A face: Selected Poems of Saadi Youssef, Graywolf Press, 2005)集作者四十多年的佳作。

問:”An Alphabet “翻譯成「字母表」,不知道什麼意思?

看他怎麼紐曲引詩:

不起眼的麻雀,是反戰的優賽福常用的意象,有和平鴿的象徵意味。在〈麻雀〉(1981)一詩中,詩人看見一隻麻雀飛到細長的玉米稈上,「這隻麻雀自己清潔 自己」,另一隻麻雀飛來,玉米稈微微彎曲,第三隻麻雀飛來,玉米稈彎成了一把弓──領會這樣的詩情畫意,這把弓在我眼裡成了三隻麻雀集體製造的一件奇妙的 和平武器。詩的抒情主人公感到有一千隻麻雀在他的襯衣下面震顫……”

Consider “Sparrows,” written in Yemen in 1981:

This morning I saw a sparrow
on a thin stalk of yellow corn,
the only plant adorning
the seaside hotel.
The sparrow cleaned itself;
the stalk shook.
Another sparrow came;
the stalk bent.
A third sparrow;
the stalk bowed quickly.
Then suddenly,
and in unison,
the three sparrows took off,
leaving the hotel.
And under my shirt
a thousand sparrows
shivered.

According to Youssef: “It is important that the poet develop a strong bond with life, to be able to observe and able to choose his subject matter…Afterwards, he can abstract things by abstracting coincidences, and symbolize them.”....


以上是我昨天很含蓄說:傅先生的了解能力是值得懷疑的......

今天看到兩篇文章值得參考:

批評與回應

演講辭中譯稿有違帕穆克原意 (萬 之) 全文刊

翻譯見木,更要見林 (傅正明) 全文刊